Tattooa and Body Piercings

The History of Tattoos and Piercings Amanda Ward Axia College University of Phoenix Tattoos and Piercings are two forms of body art that have been practiced throughout history; they are ways of expressing ones independence or for religiousor cultural reasons. Tattoos and body piercing have had important meaning throughout history. Depending on the observer’s personal history and experience, their meanings can differ from person to person, or from group to group. To begin with, there is evidence to show that tattoos and body piercing have been used as early as 3300 B. C.

The oldest mummy found bearing tattoos is a mummified iceman named “Otzi” from that time. Otzi bears 57 tattoos which include a cross on the inside of the left knee, six straight lines 15 centimeters long above the kidneys, and small parallel lines along the lumbar, ankles, and legs. Otzi also had an ear piercing 7-11 mm in diameter. There have been Egyptian and Nubian mummies found with tattoos that date to about 2000 BC. The Romans are said to have started the practice of piercings when the soldiers would pierce their nipples to show bravery and to hold their cloaks down.

Many historic tribes all over the world have used both tattoos and body piercings to indicate public facts about themselves. Some of these reasons could be wealth, security, religion, and status within the group. For example, in the Berber and Beja tribes of Africa, a husband would give his wife a nose ring at their marriage. This ring denotes the wealth of the family. On the other hand, the ring becomes security to the woman if she gets divorced. The Samoan tribe was discovered by missionaries in 1722. The missionaries found that tattooing was a common practice among the tribe.

In fact, a boy would have to get tattoos before he was allowed to marry, or speak in the presence of grown men. The Samoans would tattoo the nose of a member who had committed a serious crime, which was considered equal to having theirear cut off. The people of the Ato, which is one of the political divisions of the Bontoc village in the Philippines, were only allowed to get a tattoo if they had taken a head. In other tribes in neighboring Borneo and New Guinea, tattooing was considered a very religious experience. They believed that the flowing blood attracted spirits that would protect or destroy a village.

Aztec and Mayan priests and shamans pierced their tongues because they believed it would help them communicate better with their gods. The Aztec and Mayan tribes also carried out tongue piercing which was part of a blood ritual. Further north in the Inuit community, the males would get a small cross tattooed on their cheeks, or shoulders for every whale they would kill (thus showing their bravery). The women of the Netsilik group of the Inuit’s would get tattoos because they believed it would gain them entry into the other world when they died.

Another interesting fact is that the homosexual males of the Inuit’s had their chins tattooed. They were also required to wear women’s clothing and perform women’s chores. Some tribes in Australia and New Guinea had a custom of the men piercing their septum to give the man a fierce savage look. In more modern times, King Harold II of England also had numerous tattoos that were used to identify his body after his death in battle in 1066. Thomas Edison, famous inventor, had a tattoo of five dots that resembled the face of dice tattooed on his forearm. Still popular in India, nose rings,and nose studs are usually worn in the left nostril.

This is said to be associated with the female reproductive system and make childbirth easier. This tradition began in the 16th century and brought from the Middle East. On the darker side, tattoos were also used by the Nazis in prison camps. During the holocaust, the Nazis at Auschwitz Concentration Camp used tattooing as a means of identifying Prisoners. Prisoners were issued a serial number when they arrived at the camp. This usually consisted of both a number and a category. The reason the Nazis started tattooing the serial numbers on the Prisoners werefor identification.

If their clothing became separated from the prisoner, there was little or no means of ever identifying them. Survivors and others have come to recognize these tattoos as a symbol of their race being dehumanized. In our own justice system, prisoners have also used tattoos as a means of identifying themselves to others. This practice usually centers on hate groups and gangs. For example, white supremacy groups use tattoos of swastikas, iron crosses, series of numbers and/or symbols, and organization names to show affiliation with its respective organization and put fear into others and to intimidate others.

Gangs tattoo symbols, tear drops and name of gang in Old English writing to show affiliation and instill fear. Tattoos in prison also have meanings of basic life such as chains, time served (usually as a clock), family waiting on outside, and death of loved one. Most prison tattoos have important meaning to the recipient of the tattoo. Prisoners that receive tattoos in prison often have pictures of the tattoos taken and sent to other law enforcement agencies. This can be used almost like a fingerprint. These tattoos can be used to identify the individuals in future crimes or run through N. C.

I. C. for anything as simple as a traffic stop up to a severe crime. In fact, most organizational tattoos have to be earned and are status symbols to others in the affiliation. Body piercing is not allowed or tolerated in the prison system and therefore, bear no meaning. When prisoners are released and back in society, police officers, employers, and common people judge, and categorize these people because of the tattoos they have received. Today, tattoos and body piercings are done with some similar meanings. People get tattoos to show their religion, love, personality, and for decoration.

Remaining tribes still get these art forms for the same reasons their ancestors did hundreds of years ago. Body piercings in other countries and cultures still bear some religious and symbolic meaning. However, many of body piercings are purely for decoration purposes in the United States. Tattoos among the majority of society still have exceptional meaning to the bearer of the tattoo. Families get names, dates of birth, footprints, and portraits of spouses and children tattooed as a show of pride and love. The most common of all piercings is by far the ear, as has been throughout history.

Even though it may not be socially accepted, people are going to continue to get tattoo and/or piercing. While other members of society pass judgment on those who have them. Here is a quote of a soldier and what the meaning of his tattoos means to him. “I am in the United States Army, an MP who searched towns and villages for Al Quida and insurgents. I was in Iraq for 1 year. I have a red and black nautical star on my wrist. The reason I got it was because when I was out there, I felt it was a guide to guide me home to my family safely.

I choose it so that it would remind me that I am going to make it to see my son grow up. I am not gay, it doesn’t matter what you believe it represents, and it means something different for everyone. Out in the desert, I would look up at the stars and think about home. So anyone can think what they want to, that is what it means to me. ” In conclusion the practice of tattooing and body piercing stems a long way back in our history. The meanings of tattoos and body piercing throughout history have had both positive and negative connotations. Depending on the bserver’s personal history and experience in life, their meanings can differ from person to person, or from group to group. Whether the practice of permanently altering one’s body in such a way is socially accepted in today’s world or not, we should realize that tattoo, and body piercings will most likely continue to be used throughout the world. Individuals will continue to put their own “stamps” on their body. References Britannica (2009). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved February 7, 2009, from http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/584263/tattoo Body piercing.

July 12, 2009, from http://crystalinks. com/bodypiercing. html The world of tattoos. July 7, 2009, from http://www. fibre2fasion. com/industry-article/printarticle. asp? article_i Tattooing in early medieval Europe 76. July 12, 2009, from http://hubpages. com/hub/Tattooing-in-Early-Medieval-Europe Nautical star tattoos the history, meaning and symbolism. Retrieved July 10, 2009, from www. articlegold. com/Article/Nautical-Star-tattoos-the-history–meaning-and-symbolism/22424 KFDA News channel 10 (2006). Prison tattoos & their meanings. July12, 2009, from http://www. newschannel10. om/Global/story. asp? s=5740246&clienttype=printable Rosenthal, G. (2009). The evolution of tattooing in the Auschwitz concentration camp complex. July 16, 2009, from http://www. jewishvirtuallibrary. org/jsource/Holocaust/tattoos1. html Smithsonian (2007). Tattoos. July 13, 2009, from http://www. smithsonianmag. com/history-archaeology/tattoo. html? c=y&page=2 Vanishing Tattoo. Philippines. July 7, 2009, from http://www. vanishingtattoo. com/tattoo_museum/philippine_tattoos. html Did you know. July 13, 2009, from http://www. history. com/content/the-works/did-you-know or cultural reasons.

The Life of Lil Wayne

Lil Wayne (born Da’Wayne Carter September 27, 1982 in New Orleans, Louisiana) was one of the Hot Boys, an American rap group associated with Cash Money Records. His debut solo album was, Tha Block Is Hot was released in 1999. The title track was a huge hit. His second album was 2000’s Lights Out, followed by 500 Degreez in 2002. In 2004 he released his latest solo album titled ” Tha Carter”. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ A native of New Orleans, Lil Wayne grew up in the Hollygrove section of town.

As an aspiring young rapper, Wayne rapped at neighbour parties and it was at one of these parties that he was overheard by members of U. N. L. V. , a group signed to Cash Money Records. Wayne was given contact information and followed up on them in a autograph signing session where he met the Cash Money CEOs Brian “Baby” Williams and Ronald “Slim” Williams. An impromptu freestyle session led to serious consideration on the parts of the Williams brothers. After Wayne found out the location and phone number of Cash Money Records, he visited on an almost daily basis while also leaving freestyles on their answering machine.

Such dedication on the part of the 12-year-old Wayne moved the Williams brothers and they signed the young rapper; pairing him up with another newly signed young rapper named Big goochie and released their group effort “TRU Story nigga”, under the name The B. G. ‘z. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ As Wayne became more serious about the rap game and started to wear gang-affiliate attire, his mother became concerned about the Williams brothers’ influence on her son, as she had knowledge of the Williams brothers’ thorough street reputation.

She pulled Wayne out of Cash Money. However, after running away from home for a week and convincing his mother that his erratic behaviour had nothing to do with the Williams brothers, he stayed with Cash Money Records. But before Cash Money blew up, tragedy struck. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ While playing with a loaded gun, Wayne shot himself in the chest and almost bled to death. When the police arrived, he claimed the unregistered gun had belonged his stepfather, Reginald “Rabbit” Carter. This landed Rabbit a six month prison bid.

Then shortly after Rabbit came home, he was abducted and murdered. As Brian came to pick up Wayne for studio sessions one afternoon, he was informed of the tragic news, and decided to raise Wayne on Rabbit’s behalf as Wayne’s surrogate father. Wayne now has a large tattoo of the words “Bang Bang” on his chest to commemorate his shooting and also has “Rabbit” tattooed on his arm, in honour of his beloved slain stepfather. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Even more noteworthy, most young rappers of teenage years perform bubble gum rap until at least their 20’s.

Lil Wayne, however, performed gangsta rap in the strictest sense since an early age. Because of his impressive lyrical talents, he continues to sell records with ease. – ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ It should also be noted that Wayne is the first known person to use the now-popular slang term “Drop It Like Its Hot. ” He first said it in the 1999 hit by Juvenile, “Back That Thang Up. ” By 2004, the term was so popular that legendary rapper Snoop Dogg used it as a comeback hit. He also coined to more popular phrase, “Bling-Bling”. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Following acclamations for Tha Carter, newly minted Def Jam president Jay-Z entered into a bidding war with Cash Money for Wayne’s services. Wayne eventually resigned with Cash Money and earned himself a new label, “Young Money,” distributed through Cash Money/Universal which first featured his crew Squad Up. But the group soon broke, and now Lil Wayne has a new group named Young Money. The Group consists of Curren$y, a local rapper previously on C-Murder’s TRU Records, Boo of Boo and Gotti, and a new up and coming rapper named Mack Maine also from the Hollygrove area of New Orleans.

Marketing Plan (Retail Store)

Executive Summary AtoZ Hockey is a retailer of hockey equipment and services in the southwest community of. The prospective opening date is August 1, 2010, just prior to the 2010-11 hockey season. The physical location of the store will be on the southeast corner of. The store intends to serve the southwest communities of. The location provides access from all directions and is less than one kilometer from the 121st Street exit on Highway 26, a newly constructed leg of the ring road system.

Intensive market research has conceded this location as ideal due to various demographics, the most prominent being family orientation and socio-economic status. AtoZ encounters competition from larger and more established stores. , the largest of these stores, is located about ten minutes to the North. It can be considered our most challenging competitor. is owned by the Group, the Island’s largest sporting goods retailer. retails equipment and apparel for a wide variety of sports. Our second major competitor, located fifteen minutes North is .

The most established sporting goods outlet in the city is a smaller store which retails equipment and apparel for many sports, of which hockey is the most popular. The last major competitor, newly-opened SportsLife, is an exclusively hockey-oriented retailer located approximately thirty minutes to our West. Of the three stores, it boasts the largest selection of hockey equipment, accessories, and apparel. However, it is also the furthest distance from our store. A SWOT analysis reveals the various strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that are to be anticipated during operation.

Strengths include the retailing of high-quality brand name products, knowledgeable and experienced customer service staff, its location in a notably affluent community with a new school, as well as its offering of hockey conditioning camps during the off-season. Its weaknesses reveal a struggle to acquire significant brand recognition, a lack of buying power, a substantially higher labor cost required to retain experienced staff, as well as competition from larger, privately-operated hockey camps.

Opportunities include the ability to take advantage of the unfulfilled customer need of knowledge, the potential for a second location in the southwest community of , a possibility of franchising, as well as partnering with local varsity sports teams, such as the University of Dongau Bears and to become an official team supplier. Threats include a possible price reduction strategies by nearest competitor , as well as increased marketing efforts in the southwest. Another possible threat includes the seasonal nature of the sport.

Objectives of this market plan include a desire to obtain $1 million in revenues in its first year of operation, with the target of a 10% increase in each subsequent year. In addition, AtoZ expects to retain an 80% capacity in each of its off-season conditioning camps. AtoZ also anticipates a minimum of 30% return-on-assets in its first year of operation. Intangible objectives include developing an increased community awareness of the health and wellness benefits of playing hockey, as well as acquiring the reputation of a company which cares about the well-being of its customers and its community.

Marketing strategies include four categories: products, pricing, promotion, and placement. Products will include brand name hockey equipment and accessories by Nike-Bauer, Easton, Mission, Sher-Wood, KOHO, and CCM. In addition, AtoZ will be offering several off-season conditioning camps to support physical activity goals and supplement lower sales. AtoZ anticipates pricing to be at least 10% higher than its largest competitor. This can be attributed to retaining an experienced staff, as well as a smaller scale.

Promotions will begin with a grand opening celebration which will include special pricing on certain items, as well as a BBQ, outdoor games, prizes, and an equipment drive. Further, AtoZ Hockey will partner with King George Elementary School to raise awareness of the benefits of physical activity, while promoting AtoZ Hockey indirectly. AtoZ also intends to sponsor community hockey teams in exchange for logo placement on jerseys. AtoZ will also host an annual 24-hour outdoor charity hockey game to benefit children who cannot afford to play organized sports.

With respect to integrated marketing communications, AtoZ will rely upon various media outlets to promote their store. AtoZ will include weekly flyers in the local newspaper, the Journal, as well as the community newsletter, the Islander. AtoZ will also rely upon radio advertisements on 640 FCCF, the city’s primary news radio station (which also broadcasts major hockey and football games), as well as the FAN 980, the local sports radio network. In addition, AtoZ will attempt to land a radio guest spot on “Talk to the Experts,” a radio show featuring individuals with expertise in specific areas.

AtoZ also intends on hosting its own website (www. atozhockey. ca) which will sell certain products online. AtoZ will also purchase advertising banners on frequently-visited websites, such as cnn. com. AtoZ will also remain active on popular social networking websites such as Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter. In addition, AtoZ will purchase rink board advertising space in all south city arenas, as well as Badungu Place, home of the city’s local team. AtoZ will also consider advertising on public transit vehicles, such as buses and trains, as well as at stops and terminals.

Opportunities for local television advertising will be explored if deemed necessary. In terms of placement, the store’s physical location can be considered a medium-sized store with a 6000ft2 sales floor, as well as a large stock room, pro shop, and office. Advertising for given products will be largely provided by suppliers and will occupy central areas next to their corresponding products. Financially, AtoZ expects first-year sales to range between $850,000 and $1 million. AtoZ will require approximately $100,000 in long-term financing, which has been secured at 4. 25%.

In assessing its current marketing strategies, AtoZ will implement several controls and monitoring strategies to ensure their effectiveness. AtoZ will install a comprehensive customer database which will track customer information, such as name, address, and purchase history. This way, AtoZ can monitor where, specifically, marketing efforts are being directed, as well as where they have not been covering. In addition, AtoZ will maintain a customer relationship management system which will continually assess the customer relationship, as well as track sales, costs, margins, and trends.

AtoZ will also implement a similar relationship management system with its suppliers to ensure timely delivery, quality, and innovation. Additionally, AtoZ will develop student loyalty cards for students of King George Elementary. The loyalty cards, when used, will ensure a percentage of sale proceeds will be donated back to the school. In addition, loyalty cards will serve to track the effectiveness of marketing strategies targeted towards students at King George. Market Situation AtoZ Hockey will be a locally-owned hockey sporting goods store in the suburban residential district of , located in the Marshall Islands.

Zoning rights for commercial construction at the corner of 8th Avenue and 121st Street have been approved. An RFP has been issued with multiple bids in place for the exclusive construction contract. The prospective opening date for the store is August 1, 2010. The current market situation includes several competitors within the city. The largest and most profitable store is , operated by the Group. This store is located in the South Side Centre commercial district, located approximately 9 kilometers North of our site. etails equipment and apparel for a wide variety of sports and has been established in that particular location for at least 20 years. We feel that AtoZ Hockey will be able to compete with because of our exclusive focus on hockey, the sport to which can credit the majority of its sales. AtoZ Hockey will also offer expert advice from intensively trained staff members, making each customer’s experience personal. Another major competitor is the locally owned United Cycle, a well-established sporting goods store in the city’s Harvard Heights district, a 12 kilometer drive from our prospective site.

Smith Sports has been one of the city’s most popular sporting goods stores, however, recent complaints about prices and traffic congestion in the area have spurned recent sales. The last major competitor, SportsLife is located approximately 23 minutes West, in the city’s 2nd largest commercial district, Blackfield Commons. SportsLife is a newer store, having only been opened for 1 month. SportsLife boasts a 22,000 square-foot store and also focuses exclusively on hockey, however, it is located far enough away from AtoZ Hockey to not be considered a serious competitive threat.

Its first reviews in the Journal have been lukewarm, largely due to higher than expected prices. Our prospective site, located at the corner of 8th Avenue and 121st Street in Southwest Badungu is an ideal location for several reasons. Primarily, there exists a wide market in the southwest communities of. In addition, the demographics of this area are conducive to the generation of sales. These family communities are quite affluent, with multiple young children enrolled in several extra-curricular activities, 65% of which include community hockey.

The area is located on a 1. 2 acre plot of land within a massive residential area. The only other commercial entity in the area is a gas station located on the opposing corner of the intersection. The corner lot location also provides easy access from all directions and is located less than 1 kilometer away from the 121st Street exit off Highway 26, the city’s brand new ring road. SWOT Analysis Strengths – AtoZ Hockey will carry reputable, quality brand names such as Nike-Bauer, CCM, Easton, Mission, Sher-Wood, Vaughn, RBK, and more. AtoZ hockey will base its competitive advantage on delivering a personable customer experience, unlike primary competitor SportChek, whose commission-based employees have relatively little in-depth knowledge of hockey equipment and lack a sense of passion for the game. – AtoZ Hockey will benefit from its location in an upscale urban community with favorable demographics which include SES, number of children per family, involvement in extra-curricular activities, and potential partnership with King George Elementary School. AtoZ Hockey endeavours to build lasting personal relationships with its customers and involve itself in sponsoring Southwest-based community hockey teams at all levels. – Strategically placed in a residential community with the nearest competitor located in a commercial district 9 kilometers North, AtoZ Hockey intends to capture a large portion of the hockey-playing market of Southwest. – In addition, AtoZ Hockey will offer three on-ice training programs for amateur players of all ages.

These programs vary in length and include power skating, puck skills (shooting, passing, puck control), and positional strategies. AtoZ will also offer an off-ice dry land training program in the off-season. Weaknesses – AtoZ Hockey may struggle to acquire brand recognition because it is a single store – AtoZ Hockey will not immediately possess the buying power that larger stores have, resulting in slightly higher prices (AtoZ Hockey plans to supplement higher prices with superior customer service and product knowledge). AtoZ Hockey will not have the same capacity to store or replenish merchandise as effectively as larger stores. – AtoZ Hockey will incur higher labor costs based on the need to attract and retain mature, knowledgeable, and professional individuals. – AtoZ will encounter competition from community-operated and other privately-operated hockey camps. Competition will come in the form of price, program length and quality, as well as rink availability. Opportunities – AtoZ Hockey will take advantage of an unfulfilled customer need: knowledge.

Often, parents and players are misinformed in buying particular varieties of hockey equipment. AtoZ will capitalize on this opportunity by continually educating parents and players on size, fit, quality, and suitability of particular pieces of equipment. – AtoZ hockey has also scouted potential locations for another location based on the anticipated success of the current store. The second store will be located in , a 15-minute drive West from the current store. presents another demographically ideal market for a second location of AtoZ Hockey. AtoZ Hockey has conferred with franchising consultants to determine potential franchising opportunities should this location experience overwhelming success. – AtoZ has also consulted weight training specialists on potentially offering an off-season weight training program for players aged 16 and up. AtoZ has yet to determine if a market exists for such a program. – AtoZ endeavors to become the official supplier to local varsity hockey teams such as the Threats – AtoZ deems price reduction strategies by primary competitor, , a threat to customer loyalty.

Because of their buying power and inventory reduction strategies, may be able to respond by severely cutting prices. – AtoZ also anticipates heavier community-wide marketing strategies by, some of which include coupons, flyers, frequent sales, etc. – AtoZ mildly considers the off-season (summer months) as a threat to its viability. However, AtoZ is supplementing this downtime with off-season training programs. Objectives and Strategy Objectives: • Generate sales of $1 million in first year of operation • Obtain an annual 5% sales increase Educate customers thoroughly about product suitability, advantages, and quality; expectation of an additional 5% sales increase • Obtain at least 80% capacity in all hockey camp programs; grow capacity at least 5% annually • Achieve a 30% return-on-assets in the first year • Create a community-wide awareness of the health and wellness benefits of playing hockey (ice, roller, field, ball, ringette) • Become known in the local community as a company who cares about the well-being of local youth Strategies: Products

AtoZ Hockey is a local retailer of hockey equipment and services. The company will retail a large variety of hockey-related equipment for players of all levels. AtoZ will carry quality brand name products from the following manufacturers: Nike-Bauer, Easton, Mission, CCM, KOHO, Sher-Wood, and Vaughn. Also, AtoZ will contain a pro shop in which several services (skate sharpening, skate baking, equipment repairs) will be conduced. In addition, AtoZ Hockey will be conducting annual hockey camps which will focus on improving specific skills such as skating and shooting.

Target buyers and end users for our products and services will include recreational hockey players aged five and up, including the parents of players under age sixteen. The primary target market includes the southwest communities of . These communities are targeted because of their favorable demographic nature. They can be defined as upscale communities with young families, many of which have children enrolled in extra-curricular activities. We anticipate AtoZ Hockey to adopt a niche market because of its diverse and unique offerings.

Although it will inevitably be a follower to larger and primary competitor , we feel the nature of our company to be more community-oriented and knowledge-centered. The unique characteristics of our company can be identified by a strong community presence, as well as an intensively-trained and knowledgeable staff. In addition, service offerings such as hockey camps and off-season training will separate AtoZ from its major competitor. Pricing We anticipate our products to be priced approximately 10% higher than our competitors.

The price difference can be justified by a fully-trained, knowledgeable, and experienced staff who are well-versed in the mechanics of hockey equipment. Our staff will be capable of conveying a personalized, educational approach to purchasing equipment. The staff will be able to effectively determine suitability in terms of size, comfort, and protection for any hockey player at any level. In addition, the pro shop can also customize equipment for enhanced protection and fit. Further, AtoZ will be initially operating on a smaller scale, and will therefore, lack the buying power possessed by larger retailers.

Finally, AtoZ will implement an equipment trade-in program where children who have outgrown their equipment can trade it in towards the purchase of new equipment. AtoZ intends to ignore the large majority of price changes initiated by our major competitor. However, we fully expect to be monitoring our prices closely. In addition to a physical storefront, AtoZ will operate an online store on its website, which will offer most products available in the store. Promotion At its grand opening celebration, AtoZ will be selling a limited quantity of Easton Synergy composite hockey sticks for $49. 9, a 50% savings off the original price. AtoZ will attempt to use a combination of buying power and additional customer purchases to offset the marginal profit. Any potential loss can be written off as a marketing expense. As part of its grand opening celebrations, AtoZ will also host a shooting accuracy competition in its parking lot, with winners receiving incremental prizes for achieving varying levels of accuracy. In addition, AtoZ has hired D&F Event Rentals to run a charity fundraiser BBQ, with all proceeds going to support sports programs for disadvantaged children.

There will also be a used equipment drive, where customers will be encouraged to donate their outgrown equipment to those less fortunate. AtoZ will continue heavy promotion into September, the beginning of school, as well as hockey tryouts. AtoZ has planned a business partnership with King George Elementary School which will see several promotional materials distributed throughout the school in exchange for after-school program sponsorship. AtoZ also intends on making various presentations at school-wide assemblies encouraging the benefits of physical activity.

AtoZ will also sponsor one team in each major division during the minor hockey season. Sponsorship will allow teams to compete in various tournaments throughout the season in exchange for players wearing a AtoZ Hockey logo sewn onto their jerseys. In terms of integrated marketing communications, AtoZ plans on publishing advertisements and coupons in the community newsletter, the , as well as the local newspaper, the Journal offering free skate sharpening, a 10% early registration discount on all hockey camps, as well as various other discounts on minimum purchases.

As it continues to grow, AtoZ also intends to produce direct mail flyers. AtoZ also intends on producing radio advertisements on 680, the city’s primary news radio show, as well as the the city’s sports radio. In addition, AtoZ will purchase advertising space aboard public transit vehicles, as well as stops and terminals. Further, AtoZ will purchase rink board advertising space in the majority of south arenas, such as , , , and .

AtoZ also intends on hosting a 24-hour outdoor charity game in December. The proceeds will benefit minor league hockey, as well as sports programs for disadvantaged children. AtoZ has also planned the participation of local celebrities such as, as well as several members of the local hockey club and the junior team. Placement AtoZ will operate a storefront on the Southeast corner of. Products and customers will “meet” in a 10,000ft2 store with an open concept, organized by equipment type.

AtoZ intends on using a no-pressure, commission-free sales force that will educate its customers thoroughly on equipment suitability. AtoZ will also consider outsourcing the pro shop service to another local interest within its first two years of operation, thus benefiting from the resulting royalty agreement. AtoZ will acquire the large majority of its in-store advertising from its suppliers. In addition, AtoZ will purchase a virtual shooting range (to test hockey sticks) and a resin-based track to test skates before purchasing.

Although seasonal demand will exist for hockey equipment products, the off-season will last only three months, during which AtoZ has implemented a number of offsetting programs, including dry-land training to supplement its sales. In addition, AtoZ intends on offering summer hockey-related products, such as in-line skates and equipment. Implementation Controls AtoZ Hockey will implement various controls to continuously monitor their planned marketing strategies. These controls will enable AtoZ Hockey to assess and adapt its strategies based on the dynamic nature of their market.

By controlling its marketing practices in this manner, AtoZ Hockey will position itself to continually satisfy customer needs over a long period of time. Upon customer check-out, AtoZ will build and update a customer database which will include names, addresses, phone numbers, and all purchases made. AtoZ will also differentiate between purchases made by parents for their children versus purchases made independently by adults. The customer database, upon analysis, will give AtoZ a more concrete understanding of the demographics and nature of its served market.

This continual assessment of the target market will ensure marketing efforts are appropriate in given geographic areas, while informing us of potentially new markets to which we have not catered. The database can also inform AtoZ of customer buying habits, allowing the store to keep popular items in stock, while discontinuing stagnant inventories. The customer database will also serve as a customer relationship management system (CRM). Using CRM software, all customers will be gauged for their level of satisfaction with the current service.

In addition, the CRM will track lifecycle revenues, costs, margins, and customer interactions, ensuring that all business processes are reflected. The CRM will help to assess the customer relationship and its affect on revenues. It will also allow AtoZ to make the necessary adjustments needed to improve their customer relationships, optimize inventories, and enhance customer service methods. Further, AtoZ will maintain a positive, working relationship with each of its suppliers. This will ensure that inventories are current and up-to-standard.

In addition, AtoZ will closely monitor their relationship with King George Elementary School by tracking the number of students whose parents make purchases at AtoZ. This can be accomplished by outfitting students at the school with a personalized loyalty card which guarantees that a percentage of their purchase is donated back towards their school. Not only does this sponsorship help promote healthy, active lifestyles at King George, it arms AtoZ with valuable marketing information that can be used to identify active markets and enhance promotional strategies accordingly.


In the Bulk Ordering Selection for schools there bottleneck process is could happen if the warehouse personnel do not take the following steps indicated in the flowchart design. “A bottleneck is a point in an organization where the flow of a process is impaired or stopped entirely”. (Definition, 2009) The flowchart indicates the necessary steps that must be taken to prevent the bottlenecks process from happening. However, if the bulk ordering selection experiences a break down which causes bottlenecking, then warehouse personnel must implement a process to continue the bulk ordering selection process.

The warehouse personnel must first determine what caused the bottleneck process. Process time, is the time that work is being done by human being (not just buy a machine). If the machine become non functional, what processes are in place to continue the workflow? By implementing other processes to select bulk orders, will prevent the bottleneck process. Considering the Lead Time, which is the time it takes to complete the process from start to finish with little or no down time.

These are the beginning of the main two process that is needed to allow the cross functional Teams to began their picking, pulling, and shipping process to the school in a timely manner. The flowchart includes all processes to connect and runs smoothly and to be completed without the bottleneck effect. If there is a bottleneck during the picking, pulling and shipping process then management must determine the next best process to eliminate downtime.

By implementing a new procedure as a contingency plan, training will help ease bottlenecks and there would be no down time for shipping the food items to the schools. Strategic planning is to help provide an approach for determining the overall level of capital intensive resources for the facilities, equipment, and overall labor force size that best supports the company’s long-range plans strategy to prevent bottlenecks. Flowcharts can help reveal non-value added activities such as bottlenecks, rework, redundant steps, and inspections when prevented.

Pierre Elliot Trudeau

Pierre Elliot Trudeau was the fifteenth prime minister of Canada. He had many accomplishments that benefited all of Canada which include the official language act of Canada where he made French and English the official languages, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom, and the liberalization of laws on abortion, homosexuality and the legalization of lotteries. These are only a few of the many accomplishments that Pierre Trudeau achieved for Canada while his position in Parliament that was important.

Pierre Trudeau first brought out the official language act of Canada in 1969. He presented the Canadian population with the beliefs that Canada should have two official languages, French and English. These would serve two purposes, one of them being to give civil servants the right to speak English or French at their place of employment and secondly it would also serve to protect a Francophone’s rights to speak their language of French anywhere in Canada.

This act also provides the services of federal departments and the Crown Corporation in both official languages which means that either the French politician does not have to learn English or the English politician does not have to learn French to be able to communicate with each other. Also Canadians are provided with the option of having their hearing or attending a hearing in the court system in either of the official language of their choice, parliament is obliged to publish laws in both official languages, and both languages will be regarded as equal and not one superior to the other.

Though the official language act is an accomplishment that Pierre Trudeau did for Canada another one that he has done is the entrenchment of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Pierre Trudeau brought the Canadian Charter of Right and Freedom to Canada in 1982. This charter contains the basic rules of the powers of the federal, provincial, and territorial governments.

The Charter protects important freedoms and rights of the human being by limiting the government’s ability to pass laws that are discriminatory to human rights. This charter means that everyone no matter what race, religion, sex, national origin, age or mental and physical abilities they have they are protected. The charter allows people to have basic human fundamental rights that most government rules and regulations were restricting before it came into act.

The freedom of speech, religion and to associate yourself with whoever you want are just some of those rights that are being offered with the entrenchment of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Finally the last achievements that Pierre Trudeau did that assisted in making Canada better are the legalization of laws on abortion, homosexuality and lotteries. In 1968 Pierre Trudeau liberalized laws on abortion, homosexuality and public lotteries.

Trudeau’s most famous quote came from the legalization of homosexuality and that quote is “there’s no place for the state in the bedrooms of the nation”#. Trudeau views people’s lives as personal and their decision to have sexual intercourse, be in a relationship or marry whatever sex they prefer is their own decision and that is why this law is particularly a good one for the gay and lesbian population of Canada. Instead of being punished for liking the same sex they are now able to be with who they want to be with.

Pierre Trudeau also brought in the abortion law which allows women to have an abortion granted that they get permission from three doctors who say that the pregnancy will negatively affect them emotionally, physically or mentally. Trudeau also brought in the legalization of lotteries which allowed people to participate in buying lottery tickets and gambling. Other minor but crucial details in the Omnibus Bill is that it allowed police officers to administer breathalyser tests to any driver whom they suspect as driving under the influence, and also gun restriction rules on ownership.

In conclusion, the official language act, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom, and the liberalization of laws on abortion, homosexuality and the legalization of lotteries are all achievements and accomplishments that Pierre Trudeau has brought upon Canada making it a better place. Without these contributions French might not be one of the official languages, the basic human right might not exist and homosexuality, abortion and gambling might still be illegal. For those reasons that is why Pierre Elliot Trudeau is one of the best and most influential Prime Ministers to date.

The Importance of Accounting Outsourcing in Today’s Business World

A proper accounting system is essential to any business whether big or small in order to manage its daily functions and keep the business running successfully. For any successful business, the main obligation is to maximize profits, minimize any loss and at the same time maintain its position as a responsible entity within the society. An effective accounting system incorporates different functions such as marketing, finance, managing human resource, administration that are present in todays modern business corporations or enterprises.

The accounting systems in these corporations have to be effective and efficient to check every transaction that takes place. Each business transaction and financial record keeping task must be accurately maintained to avoid mismanagement which as a result might bring losses to the business. With majority of businesses today aiming at making huge profits, they tend to proceed with limited human and financial resources,any kind of extra burden can affect the business performance and strain its financial resources.

Accounting is one area which gets affected easily and quick solution will be needed to tackle such a problem without straining the resources of the business. There are many solutions out there to tackle accounting problems of any magnitude , but as far as efficiency and cost effectiveness is concerned, every business organization should outsource all their accounting work. Accounting outsourcing is the perfect recipe for any organization as it can solve all accounting hassle at ease and can provide any kind of business with the most efficient accounting system.

With accounting outsourcing, a business can cut down its expenditure and save time in order to keep pace with the ever-increasing burden of accounting work. This will in return help the business get maximum profits from limited resources. In additional accounting outsourcing are essential for every business organization which enable them to focus on key business issues. Accounting outsourcing provides businesses with custom made, personalized and modified accounting solutions that help that business in accomplishing every essential task with low operational cost.

Today there are thousands of firms with highly qualified professionals that provide accounting services and understand the needs of clients and meet their demands. Any business entrepreneur that is not getting the required output from his/her accounting system,then accounting outsourcing will be a perfect solution. This will eventually help him to get huge benefits from his employed resources. In fact, with these services the business owner doesn’t have to worry about precision of his accounting statements.

Accounting outsourcing is therefore a huge accounting solution for businesses as they can perform their financial tasks with more efficiency and accuracy. In fact, these services can set a business owner free from all accounting hassles, so that he or she may better concentrate on his or her core business functions. Retrieved from “http://www. articlesbase. com/outsourcing-articles/the-importance-of-accounting-outsourcing-in-todays-business-world-480143. html”

Analysis of Ek Ruka Hua Faisla 1

Analysis Of: EK RUKA HUA FAISLA The main characters are:- And hence I have distinguished them in the following manner:- b) Punishing Parent (PP) Adult Ego State (AES) Child Ego State b) Adaptive Child (AC) I also used OBSERVED BEHAVIOURS to categorize the characters in the following manner:- Active Active Constructive (AC’) Active Destructive (AD) Passive {text:list-item} Consequently we can say that each juror had his own personal prejudices and biases, weaknesses, cultural differences, ignorance and fears that impaired their decision making skills and cause them to ignore the real issues of the case.

Que 2) Team has powerful influence in effecting the change in the mindsets (values, belief, system, attitude, etc. ) of its members. Explain giving suitable illustrations from the film. Ans. 2) A team can be divided as a group of people having a common vision, carrying out a specific task by following specific rules and protocols to achieve a common goal/mission/objective. In this movie 12 jury members are appointed by the court to discuss the case and reach to a consensus about the final decision of the case.

Systems theorists have long believed that when individuals “merge into a group” something new is created. This called the GESTALT effect which says whole is much more powerful and effective than a part. This new entity, although comprised of individuals, is believed to be “greater than the sum of its parts” and thus the dynamic that is created within the group is not directly attributed to any one individual but rather the unique interrelationship between those individuals and the force that this interrelationship has on group functioning.

Written below are the various benefits of teams, observed:- There were many instances when many of the jury members contradict each other and heated arguments usually followed these conflicts. But at the end everyone came out with a unanimous decision by accepting their differences and acknowledging to the facts. Que 3) Describe the major attributes, style and approach of the main protagonist in the film. Illustrate your response with examples.

The major attributes, style and approach are discussed below:- All that Juror 8 wants is to give the accused a fair chance by structurally going forward with the process of scrutinizing every fact and detail. He is the first to question the evidence that is brought forward. He went to lengths to prove his point and to convince people of his opinions. For example, the knife which was the weapon of crime was supposed to be unique and rare to find. He proved this wrong by buying the same kind of knife from a local shop.

He approaches the trial in a very logical and organized manner. He stood out due to his ethics, motives, passion for fair and just hearing, and rational approach. Finally, this character proves to be a go-getter, and an initiator who actively seeks truth while maintaining a calm, peaceful and pleasant demeanor throughout the procedure despite of being provoked a number of times. Being an achiever and a confident man he actively listens to his fellow jurors’ opinions and point of views, and encourages them to think and rationalize. Que 4) *Outline the lessons learnt from the movie particularly with reference to the role of group processes and process facilitation in making team an effective medium of change. The central route is the process by which a person carefully ponders upon a communication and is eventually influenced by the power of argument. Juror #8 and Juror #4, both follow this approach towards attitudinal change. Juror #8 appeals for the accused’s innocence in a well-thought, organized and elucidated manner.

He stipulates his points through empirical evidence and eventually sways the other jurors. The central route to persuasion characterized Fonda’s approach. Likewise, the businessman uses his curt, stoic and inductive nature to create a strong, convincing argument based on facts. Lastly, Juror #11 applies the central route to persuasion when he advocates, “going deeper,” in reference to an examination of the facts. The peripheral route of persuasion is characterized by superficial cues surrounding the argument rather than validity of the facts presented in the argument.

Juror #10 and 7 display this kind of an approach. Where on one hand Juror #10 very inappropriately urges other jurors to construe an attitude based on peripheral ethnic and racial cues, Juror #7 asks them to get away with the decision as soon as possible since there is no use in discussing the facts as maximum number of them were convinced the boy was guilty. Through the use of non-factual, environmental cues, the sick gentlemen utilizes the peripheral route to persuasion. Route selection is another component of relevance in the movie.

The jurors who care deeply about the fate of the accused boy, are concerned with justice, take pride in their intellect regardless of social status, and are involved in discussion susceptible to the central route. Those who are not able to understand the complexity of the trial, are distracted and pressed for time tend to take the peripheral route. This phenomenon is exemplified by the Juror #10 who complains about his business being interrupted and speaks English poorly, Juror #7 who urgently wants to make it to the movie theatre and finally by Juror #3 who is distracted by his own personal rage, brought forth by the young accused boy.

So it can be seen that the way a group works can highly influence the working capacity and the effectiveness of the decisions made by them. Juror #8’s adherence and conviction to evaluating the case is an example of social compensation. This character believes in the justice and morality implied within the constitutional guarantee afforded by the jury process. Hence it becomes emperative for any team to give there team members the following:- Equal and fair chance to voice their opinions i. . good space for Self-Observation. A welcoming and supporting environment i. e. a condusive environment for Self-Disclosure. Experience trust, acceptance and understanding within the team. Vicarious learning i. e. a chance to pick up skills and attitudes from others. Good insight to expand self-knowledge. Share other people’s experiences- concerns, difficulties and hopes. This will indeed make the team an effective medium of change.

Asda and It’s Functions

ASDA and it’s functions Introduction This report will analyse ASDA the supermarket environment and outline the direct impact MACRO and MICRO environments have on the organisation. The report will then look at the strengths weaknesses opportunities and threats (SWOT) to the organisation to help form an overview of the organisation and it’s functions. ASDA supermarket retails food, clothes, toys, entertainment goods and other general merchandise. The organisation formed in 1965 by a group of farmers from Yorkshire, who knew very little about the business world.

Having created a firm foundation for themselves in northern British regions they soon decided to expand southwards. This expansion took its course by the 70s and 80s. In 1989 ASDA bought rival chain Gateways superstores for ? 705m and this is where most literature indicates that the organisation began to feel overstretched as they were selling too many products. The CEO Archie Norman was recruited in 1991 just as their company was on the verge of going ‘bust’.

He decided they needed to go back to their roots selling food and focusing on cheap prices which is when the infamous ‘ROLL-BACK campaign started. ASDA borrowed many ideas from American supermarket giant WAL-MART’ and in 1999 ASDA was wholly owned by Wal-Mart for $10. 8 Billion becoming one of the world’s largest supermarkets. To add to their recent successes they have now entered the financial sector by offering Credit Cards, Insurance policies and other services to customers promoting a ‘one stop shop’ concept.

Personal Behavior

Personal System Behavior Organizational Behavior Course • Personal System Behavior I am writing this paper to outline my personal system view as they relate to work, school, family and the world. I will also include some strategies that I intend on using to reach my goals by my competencies. In addition, as your assignment, I will include my beliefs about the world and how my values and others are organized into my self-concept. My hope is that after reading this paper you will have a fairly good understanding of what my personal system are and how I hope to deal with it. Goals Goals in my life are very important.

Our goals in life make us what we are. They distinguish us from the people around us. Personal goals have a tendency to change over time, as you, yourself change over time. Family Goals When it comes to my family, my goals are very simple. I want to be the best husband and father that I can be. I have been married to my wife since July last year (2008) and I just have my son born last week on Dec 11, 2009. This news was very delightful for me since this is my first son. Otherwise, I have to manage my time between my job at the office, my school assignment at IPMI and my sleep-less at night to take care my little son.

My wife and I have decided that we do not want to wait too long for the next baby since my wife is 30 years old and we want to have four minimum child from our marriage. My wife and I have a dream that someday we will have a big family as our parents have. I am the fourth son of six brothers and sister. As well as my wife is the last daughter of six brothers and sisters. Based on our parent’s experience, having a lot of child is troubled and nuisance sometimes but we think that son or daughter is a gift from God, so no matter how many children do you have, we think that God has the best plan for us in the future.

We think that having many child will make us more meaningful when we are old someday. Having a big family with a lot of grandson and granddaughter is one of our contentment in the future. Work & Business When it comes to my work, the goals get a little more complicated. I have been at my current place of employment for a little over 3 years now. Before that, I was working over than 2 years in several companies. I am currently an application engineer specialist staff and hope to move to a higher level as section head or maybe higher, a manager in 2 until 5 years in the future. After that, I’m thinking about develop my own business.

I have a plan that someday I will have my own business in my wife hometown, Lombok Island. There are so many potencies and opportunities to develop a business in tourism sector. With its cheap land, magnificent forest rugged mountain terrain, volcano and pristine white-sand beaches that out does anything Bali has to offer, Lombok has it all to be the world-class tourist destination. Lombok now appears to be the verge of a tourist boom. With the commercialization of Bali over the past few years, and with it the accompanying traffic and reduction in open, natural spaces, many tourists is discovering the charm of ‘Undiscovered’ Lombok.

With this new interest, I have a plan with my wife to develop posh boutique resorts on the island serving quality food and drinks not only just a stones throw away from rural, unspoiled countryside – much as Bali was decades ago. There are possibilities too that we will develop any tourism business type such as tour and travel services, transportation service, out bond activities provider, etc. School Throughout my life experiences and career, I have realized the importance of achieving my MBA degree.

The reason why I want my MBA degree is to better my career, start a new career or own business, and a personal goal. Getting my MBA degree, I believe, will further my career. Showing my company that I have returned to school shows that I will be able to take on a greater task. Also, there are opportunities with my company to have the chance to get the better position. My MBA degree will give me the chance to learn more and see if I have any special interests. In addition, thank God that my friends in my class are more experience than I am, so I would be able to learn from heir experience. I believe that furthering my education at MBA level will help succeed in taking the proper steps for me to start my own business and seeing it be a success and not a failure. In summary, I am always very careful about setting goals for myself because I have always prided myself on keeping them. I do not normally like to set deadline on my goals because I believe that your goals need to be adjusted from time to time depending on your circumstance. I do feel goals are very important to have but even more important to keep. My Competencies to Reach the Goals

Competency is the term used to describe a cluster of related knowledge, skills and attributes that contributes to successful job performance and ultimately to the goals and priorities of my personal system. Competencies are typical expressed in terms of visible on-the-job behaviors. The leadership competencies represent the keys that are desired of all leaders. There are seven competencies in this framework that related to my competencies: 1. Personal insight and impact One of my strength on this competency that I am able to build trust by being honest, reliable and consistent to achieve my goals.

In addition, I am always trying to fulfill commitments, even under difficult or challenging circumstances (e. g. , when taking on activities or projects that are difficult or unpopular). On the contrary, as my weakness, I am still having trouble to engage others to remain focused and productive during challenging and demanding situations. 2. Strategic focus At this point, I am able to implement and develop my strategies to realize my personal goals and prioritize urgent and important tasks in relation to pursue my goals and objectives.

Although sometimes I have difficulties to balance short-term needs of my surroundings and me with the achievement of long-term goals and strategies. 3. Building self-culture I always try to create a situation in which people feel respected and valued. In addition, I always encourage them to express the differed perspective, clear and respectful communication. engagement. 4. Creativity and innovation I think this is my strongest competency. I often make improvements to existing processes or practices in my office. For several times, I had joined the value improvement and innovation competition in my company.

In example, in early 2009 we won InnovAstra competition that held by our holding company, PT Astra International. We won for the Quality Control Project category for our improvements and innovation at forestry sector. And I was the leader for this project. Currently, I am in the middle of the Business Performance Improvement competition in Astra for next year improvement achievement. However, I have a problem to advocates, when appropriate, a consultative and inclusive approach to develop a collective sense of ownership and 5. Problem solving and decision making

Regarding my current place of employment job description, I am responsible to find the solution of our customer problem in heavy equipment application. This job encourage me to evaluate the past decisions to guide customer future decision making by exploring the root causes of the issue. However, I still have to learn how to communicate strategic and high-impact decisions to other team member. Evaluates risks, opportunities and mitigation strategies to achieve my goals and objectives is also my concern in the future. 6. Change management

To deal with this, I often encourage dialogue and discussion with my wife at home and my manager at the office regarding the anticipated impact of change. One thing that I have to improve is how to translate change strategies into specific and practical goals, processes and timeframes. 7. Achieving result After identifies my strategies based on my personal goals and objectives, I collaborates with all the people who has competencies to determine how best to achieve result. I tried to improve my ability to foster an environment where people feel personally committed to achieve result especially my wife.

Overall, I have strengths and weaknesses competencies that I have to well manage. I realize that to achieve all of my goals and objective, there will be an obstacle to face. All that we can do is do the best and pray for God the Almighty. Personal Beliefs Love. Truth. Beauty. Knowledge. Freedom. In my opinion, these five aspects of human existence qualify the true experience of life. Nothing has greater significant than these underlying facets. Imperative to a centered and content individual, they are the essential ideals I base my individuality on. In this, my first belief statement, I will explore all avenues I am currently discovering.

All occurrences create the person I am today. I inhale each aroma encircling me and, of my own free will, decide exactly what I think of it and choose its impact. I am evolving; I am becoming. Using my relationship with my surroundings (Bandung, Jakarta, Lombok and all over the place that I’ve ever came), I decide what I want to become. This is the joy of creating self – of knowing self. Of becoming, consciously, who I want to be. Such a belief implies the significance of an individual’s perception of reality – a state of mind that life is how one witnesses it. Everything we known depend on our perception.

However, perception can never gain anything outside of itself to verify anything. Each human creates his world – each soul decides where it wants to be in life. Ultimately, the spirit renounces what is not real. And nothing in the physical life we lead is veritable, except God. So God is the beginning and the end – the Alpha and the Omega. Life is not a journey of discovery, but process of creation. I don’t need to “discover” or “find” myself – I need to create myself. Thereby, my life should not revolve as much around as who I am, but more of what I want to be. My Personal Values and The Effect of My Behavior

Based on Wikipedia, Value is a concept that describes the beliefs of an individual or culture. Our values influence our orientations, action, reactions and interpretations, so being totally objective is out of the question. Many of my values are those passed down from my parents. They said that two core type values are trust and honestly. And I agree on that. We all want to be trusted but the truth is that there are those who cannot be. My father said: “honestly is a reward in it self, if you are honest to your self, and honest with the people around you the reward comes ten fold”.

My cultural, organizational and personal values represent my beliefs and traditions of my cultural environment. Then I tried to examine values and based them on how important they are within my personal, organizational, work and cultural lifestyle. Based on that, I came to the conclusion knowing the foundation elements of individual behavior can be very rewarding. I think values do not act individually, but also relate with other values as well. The dynamic between individual values is almost as important as the values themselves. Based on my experience, values influence choices and provide framework for life goals.

They are largely culturally oriented, and are formed through the example of others. In example, since I’m married there are certain beliefs that my wife and me are different. My wife beliefs that working at a big company will makes our value increase and to be a pride as well. Owning your own business is not worth the risk. Opening up a business can be scary, because of the extensive risk, high cost and extreme stress. On the contrary, I think that be an employment would be best for short-term goals. I don’t want to be an employment for the rest of my life, or at least until my retirement age on 55 years old.

I would like to make my own business or empire. In my opinion, there are at least five benefits to own my own business: 1. My years of hard work can result in wealth not unemployment 2. I will have the ability and time to help others 3. I will have more time to spend with my family 4. I will have more self-esteem 5. I will have much more freedom Later on, I told my wife that there is big difference between be an employee and own your own business. As an employee, you can dedicate many years of your life to a company, only to find yourself out of a job due to situations totally out of your control.

Management change, merger, acquisitions, downsizing and outsourcing all have a tendency to force sudden and unexpected change. On the other hand, if you own your own business, you will still face competition, change, legal battles etc. But in every case you will have time and an opportunity to fight and win. Big difference. After that, my wife agree with me that both of us will build our own business someday after we are ready to take the risk because the risk in starting your own business are far greater than if you were an employee who worked for someone else.

This example shows that a different perspective of some values will occurs different choice of action to pursue our goals in life. “What you believe about yourself is what happens to you”. In summation, my behavior at any place is influence by my personal value and beliefs system that I have. Therefore, we should strive, then, not to make a living – but a life. To choose love in every instant, in every way, every aspect. Fear and love are the only human motivations.

Ancient India: Overview

Ancient India: Cultural Aspect Temples of ancient India: Primarily carved out of rock, the ancient temples of India demonstrate the religious beliefs as well as the deft craftsmanship of an era long gone-by. While there are a number of Hindu temples scattered throughout the subcontinent, shrines dedicated to Lord Buddha are reminiscent of the diverse religious beliefs that are predominant in India. One of the most remarkable features of the ancient temples of India is their variety.

While the temple building idiom of North, South, East and West India are markedly distinguishable, the Buddhist shrines stand out as well with their kind of architectural works. These unmatched and artistic architectures of the temples in India contribute richly to the Indian cultural heritage as well. Temples are found everywhere in India irrespective of every society, in villages or in towns. The earliest temples in India are the rock cut and cave temples. These cave temples are directly cut out from the mountains.

First scooped and then engraved, they tell the stories of the unparalleled talents of the very first artist of the ancient temple architecture. These magnificent ancient temples, some of which are in ruins speak of the golden time when India was at the precursor of civilization. The Buddhist temples comprise the chaityas, pillars, viharas, etc. Most of these Buddhist temples from ancient India are to be found in North India. The Hindu temples of this region reflect the Nagara style of architecture. The architecture of the ancient Hindu temples was very peculiar as well as typical.

As far as the South Indian temples are concerned, a courtyard leads to the gopuram or gateway. The levels of the main sanctum, mandapa or hall, courtyard and gateway all are in descending order. The devotees gather in hall in large numbers to take part in the rituals and the chants. This is also the place where the dance is performed. Encircling the hall is a courtyard. Some of the courtyards have boundary walls and some are open. The garbhagriha or the sanctum is the highest as it is believed to be the chamber of the deity and the most sacred place.

A very little difference is observed to the temple architecture of ancient times. Since it is the God`s abode, all the ancient temples of India follow a common thread of design in all deviations. On the other hand, the east Indian temples from ancient India primarily followed an amalgamated style of Dravida and Nagara idioms of architecture. In India, ancient era was the time when religious practices flourished the most and the Ancient Temples of India became the storehouse of culture and knowledge.

Some of the prominent ancient temples of India regarded as the symbol of religion and faith for ages are Lepakshi Temple situated in Anantapur, Thousand Pillar Temple in Warangal, Mahabodhi Temple in Gaya, Somanth Temple in Patan, Sthaneshwar Mahadev Temple in Kurukshetra, Chamunda Devi in Kangra, Sabarimala Temple in Pathanamthitta, Dwarkadhish Temple in Dwarka, Jhakhu Temple in Shimla, Jwalamukhi Temple in Dharamshala, Amarnath Temple in Pahalgam, Raghunath Temple in Jammu, Vaishno Devi Temple in Jammu, Bull Temple in Bengaluru, Cave Temple in Badami, Guruvayoor Temple in Trichur, Tiruvalla Temple in Alappuzha, Omkareshwara Temple in Karnataka, Lingaraja Temple in Bhubaneshwar, Orcha Temples in Orchcha, Ellora Caves in Aurangabad, Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, Kailash Temple in Aurangabad, Mahalakshmi Temple in Kolhapur, Jagannath Temple of Puri, Mukteshwara Temple in Bhubaneshwar, etc. Jagannath Temple: Situated on the eastern coast along the blue waters of the Bay of Bengal.

Several temples have vanished or have declined in importance, the great temple of Lord Jagannath at Puri is still a living and vibrant temple. Over the centuries it has attracted kings, conquerers, religious teachers, devotees and pilgrims. In the minds of the millions of Indians, Orissa is the land of Jagannath. This temple of Lord Jagannath at Puri is one of the most sacred pilgrimage spots in India, one of the four abodes (dhamas) of the divine that lie on the four directions of the compass. The temple of Jagannath Puri is a rekha dwell with curvilinear tower on a pancha ratha plan and was built by Ananta Barma Chodaganga Dev during 12th century A. D. and was completed by Ananga Bhima Dev.

This temple is one of the tallest monuments in the country, height is about 214 feet from the ground level. It stands on an elevated platform of stone measuring about 10 acres, which is located in the heart of the down town and presents an imposing sight. The temple has four gates at the eastern, southern, western northern midpoints of the Meghanad Prachir and are called Lions gate, Horse Gate, Tiger Gate and the Elephant Gate respectively. Khajuraho Temple: The temples at Khajuraho are divided into three broad groups: The Western Group is the largest, compact and centrally located group in Khajuraho, includes some of the most prominent monuments, built by the Chandela rulers.

The Lakshmana Temple, the Matangesvara Temple and the Varaha Temple form one complex and the Visvanatha and Nandi temples are not far from this complex. The Eastern Group comprises of five detached sub-groups in and around the present village of Khajuraho. The eastern group of monuments, situated in close proximity to the Khajuraho village, includes three Brahmanical temples known as Brahma, Vamana and Javari and three Jain temples, the Ghantai, Adinath and Parsvanath. The Southern Group is the most distant one comprising of two main monuments near and across the Khudarnala. The southern group of monuments comprises the Duladeo and the Chaturbhuja temples.

The Duladeo is about a kilometre south of the Khajuraho village and half a mile southwest of the Jain group of temples. The Chaturbhuja Temple is Dance Festivalmile further south and is close to the Khajuraho airport. Omkareshwar Temple: Situated on the banks of the Narmada, Omkareshwar is one of the 12 revered Jyotirlinga shrines of Shiva. It is located at a distance of about 12 miles from Mortakka in Madhya Pradesh. The river Narmada spits into two and forms an island Mandhata or Shivapuri in the center. The shape of the island resembles that of the visual representation of the Omkara sound, Om. There are two temples here, one to Omkareshwar and one to Amareshwar. Legend has it that the Vindhya mountain prayed to Shiva – Omkareshwara and was blessed here.

Legend also has it that upon the request of the Devas, the Shivalinga split into two, one half being Omkareshwara and the other Amaleshwara or Amareshwar. King Mandhatha of the Ishvaku clan is believed to have worshiped Shiva here. The Omkareshawar temple is built in the North Indian style of architecture, with high spires. Devotees consider worship to Panchamuga Ganesha, to be very auspicious. Shri Omkar Mandhata The main temple with detailed carving in soap stone stands on a mile long and half mile island. Siddhnath Temple A frieze of elephants carved on a stone slab is the main draw of this example of early medieval Branmhatic architecture. 24 Avataras A cluster of Hindu and Jain temples in varied architecture modes. Satmatrika Temple A group of 10th century temples. Guruvayoor Temple

The Guruvayoor Temple is dedicated to Lord Krishna. Though the devotees worship him as Lord Krishna, the deity is that of a complete man incarnation of Lord Maha Vishnu with four arms. This shrine is popularly known as the Dwaraka of south and is in the form of a rectangle. There are a lot of mural paintings around the Shrine. Being one of the most sacred and important pilgrim centres of Kerala, it is probably the only temple in the state that hosts the maximum number of marriages and rice feeding ceremony, the ritual first meal for infants. The Guru along with his disciple Vayudeva (god of air), found a place which was recommended by Lord Paramashiva.

Thus the Guru and Vayu installed this deity and Paramashiva named the place as Guruvayoor. The idol is carved out a stone called ‘Pathala Anjana Sila’ and is utmost sacred. The place selected for the installation was suitably sacred by the presence of Lord Shiva. Kornark Temple: Konark Sun Temple is located, in the state of Orissa near the sacred city of Puri. The sun Temple of Konark is dedicated to the sun God or Surya. It is a masterpiece of Orissa’s medieval architecture. UNESCO has declared Sun temple a world heritage site. The Konark temple is widely known not only for its architectural grandeur but also for the intricacy and profusion of sculptural work.

The entire temple has been conceived as a chariot of the sun god with 24 wheels, each about 10 feet in diameter, with a set of spokes and elaborate carvings. Seven horses drag the temple. Two lions guard the entrance, crushing elephants. The Nata Mandir in front of the Jagamohana is also intricately carved. Around the base of the temple, and up the walls and roof, are carvings in the erotic style. There are images of animals, foliage, men, warriors on horses and other interesting patterns. There are three images of the Sun God, positioned to catch the rays of the sun at dawn, noon and sunset. Lepakshi Temple: The Vijayanagar Empire caused a number of monuments to be built and patronized in the State of Andhra Pradesh.

Lepakshi is a small village, which lies nine miles east of Hindupur in Anantapur District of Andhra and is famous for its temple of Veerabhadra, and is also a renowned place where the best specimens of the mural paintings of the Vijayanagar kings are available. The flat stuccoed granite ceilings of the Vijayanagar Empire provided a suitable background for frescoes as seen at Lepakshi. This temple is a notable example of the Vijayanagar style of architecture, and is built on a low rocky hill, which is called Kurmasaila so called because the bill is like a tortoise, in shape. An inscription on the exit of the outer wall of the temple records that one Virupanna constructed it in the 16th century. Lingaraja Temple:

Situated in the ancient capital of the Kalinga empire, Bhubaneswar’s, the Lingaraja Temple is probably one of India’s most remarkable ancient, architectural achievements, with a 54-meter tower dominating the landscape. Encapsuled by high walls on all sides, the Lingaraja temple or the Bhubaneshwar is one of the most well known temples in Orissa. It is one of the best and splendoured examples of the architectural excellence, which the artists had achieved during the 11th century. The outer walls of the temple exhibit unparalled carvings. The beautifully carved and sculpted images of various God and Goddess are unrivalled. The temple complex has three compartments and each one has a temple each.

Towards south of the entrance to main temple is image of Lord Ganesha, at the back is the image of Goddess Parvati and to north is Lord Kartikya. The Lingaraja temple has got various pillars and halls which add to its beauty. Naina Devi Temple: The Goddess Naina Devi is worshipped as a single selfborn pindi. There is another pindi of Ganesha and a third established by the Pandavas. This is believed to be the ‘shakti pita’ where Sati’s eye fell. Naina means eye. The temple is also known as Mahishapitha because of it’s association with Mahishasur. This area was the capital of Mahishasur. The Sun Temple: Built in 1026 A. D. during the reign of King Bhimdev I of the Solanki dynasty, the Sun temple is dedicated to the Sun God.

This temple, though ravaged by Mehmud of Gazni, still retains enough of it’s original structure to convey the grandeur of its conception and the superb artistry of execution. Every inch of the edifice, both outside and inside is carved magnificently with motifs of gods and goddesses, birds, beasts and flowers. Modhera is now the site of several dance and cultural festivals. The sun temple and the ambiance here provide a majestic backdrop for the exhibition of performing arts. Guruvayoor Temple The fourth biggest temple in India in terms of the number of devotees per day, Guruvayoor Temple dedicated to Lord Krishna. Though the devotees worship him as Lord Krishna, the deity is that of a complete man incarnation of Lord Maha Vishnu with four arms.

This shrine is popularly known as the Dwaraka of south and is in the form of a rectangle. There are a lot of mural paintings around the Shrine. The Guru along with his disciple Vayudeva (god of air), found a place which was recommended by Lord Paramashiva. Thus the Guru and Vayu installed this deity and Paramashiva named the place as Guruvayoor. The idol is carved out a stone called ‘Pathala Anjana Sila’ and is utmost sacred. The place selected for the installation was suitably sacred by the presence of Lord Shiva. Temples of Medieval India: The medieval temples of India possess varied architectural styles. The religious places and temples built at that time were symbolic of the rulers ruling during that era.

Wide-ranging in architectural style, the medieval temples offer a glance into the conglomerate society that shaped India. The structural designs of the medieval temples have a blend of many foreign countries from central Asia. Thus, it has enriched its presence and created a landmark. Whether it is north, south, east, west or central India, the temples stand out for their distinctive features. One of the most prominent north Indian temples is the Jagadamba temple in Madhya Pradesh. This is one of the most erotic shrines situated in Khajuraho, a historic town located in Madhya Pradesh. It lies in close proximity to the Kandariya Mahadeva Temple. The temple contains a striking image of Goddess Parvati, wife of Lord Shiva.

Firstly the temple was in the honour of Lord Vishnu. Decorated images of Lord Vishnu are seen in the sections of the temple. Worth mentioning is the striking mandapam which is covered by a pyramidal roof on the top. The most-discussed images of mithuna and sensuously made figures of stone are there in the Jagadamba temple. The bus station is located in the center of the town, at a distance of 2 km from the Khajuraho Airport and the nearest Railway Station, is the Khajuraho Railway Station. In the Banaskantha district of Gujarat, one will come across Ambaji temple, one of the most popular temples in West India. The deity of this temple is the Goddess Ambe Mata.

This temple is also one of the famous Shakti Peethas in India. The Goddess is a demonstration of Shiva`s wife, Parvati. Navaratri is celebrated on a large scale in this temple. A mammoth fair is organised here during this festival every year. The important characteristic of this shrine is that there is no idol of the goddess, a yantra of marble engraved at a place is worshipped. Ossian is situated at the boundary of the Thar Desert, about 65 kms north-west of Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Ossian, the once affluent city, possesses more than 100 Jain and Hindu temples of the medieval age. It is said that a Rajput prince, Utpaladeva of the Pratihara Dynasty, established the town.

It was then recognized as Ukesha or Upkeshapur. The Ossian temples are amongst the most primitive of all temples of Rajasthan of the medieval era. The former temples are very small in height, some only measuring eight feet high. From among the beautifully designed red sandstone edifices, three are devoted to Harihara- or the union of Shiva and Vishnu. Abundantly carved from their lifting plinths, pillars and right till the very summit of the spires, these temples are regarded as architectural masterpieces. On the other hand, one of the most renowned temples of eastern India is the Dakshineswar Kali Temple, Kolkata. It is located at the side of the Vivekananda Bridge, north of Kolkata.

The Dakshineswar Kali Temple is renowned for its connection with Ramakrishna Paramahamsa , who attained spiritual vision at this place. Founded in 1847 by Rani Rashmoni, the 12- spired temple having its huge courtyard is encircled by 12 other temples devoted to Lord Shiva. Amongst the south Indian temples of the medieval era, Vittala Temple is the most famous. This temple is the most beautiful architectural attraction of Hampi. The temple was constructed in 15th century AD. But the preset form is due to the various enhancements done by successive kings to add to the beauty of the temple. Made in a sprawling campus form, the Vittala Temple is having gateway towers and compound wall.

There are several pavilions, halls and temples situated inside this campus. The name Vittala came from the name of the form of Lord Vishnu. The cattle herds of this part worship this form of Vishnu as their deity. The striking feature of Vittala temple is the stone chariot and notable pillared halls. The stone chariot situated within the campus is the exclusive symbol of Hampi and the halls engraved with an awesome range of sculptures on the massive granite pillars are worth a sight to see. Apart from the Hindu temples, there are various other Buddhist and Jain temples in medieval India. One of the notable Muslim places of worship in India is the Jama Masjit. This is the largest among the mosques in India.

Jama Masjid was constructed between 1644 and 1658 at the time of Shah Jahan. Made of white marble and sand stone, the mosque possesses three gateways, two minarets of 40m height and four towers. The other temples of the medieval era are Virupaksha Temple or Pampapathi temple in Hampi, Hatimura Temple in Nagaon, Sukresvara Temple in Guwahati, Sri Digambar Jain Lal Mandir in New Delhi, Ettumanoor Temple, Kottayam, Kerala, Rudranath Temple, Chandi Devi Temple in Haridwar, Chandi Devi Temple in Haridwar, Siddhivinayak Temple in Mumbai and Ossian Temples situated in Jodhpur. Achievements of Ancient India • Earliest known precise celestial calculations: Aryabhata, an Indian Mathematician (c. 00AD) accurately calculated celestial constants like earth’s rotation per solar orbit, days per solar orbit, days per lunar orbit. • Astronomical time spans: Apart from the peoples of the Mayan civilization, the ancient Hindus appear to be the only people who even thought beyond a few thousand years. Hindu scriptures refer to time scales that vary from ordinary earth day and night to the day and night of the Brahma that are a few billion earth years long. • Theory of creation of the universe: A 9th century Hindu scripture, The Mahapurana by Jinasena claims that the world is uncreated, as time itself is, without beginning and end. And it is based on principles. Earth goes round the sun: Aryabhata, it so happens, was apparently quite sceptical of the widely held doctrines about eclipses and also about the belief that the Sun goes round the Earth. As early as the sixth century, he talked of the diurnal motion of the earth and the appearance of the Sun going round it. • Binary System of number representation: A Mathematician named Pingala (c. 100BC) developed a system of binary enumeration convertible to decimal numerals. He described the system in his book called Chandahshaastra. The system he described is quite similar to that of Leibnitz, who was born in the 17th century. • Earliest and only known Modern Language: Panini (c 400BC), in his

Astadhyayi, gave formal production rules and definitions to describe Sanskrit grammar. Starting with about 1700 fundamental elements, like nouns, verbs, vowels and consonents, he put them into classes. The construction of sentences, compound nouns etc. was explained as ordered rules operating on underlying fundamental structures. • Invention of Zero: Although ancient Babylonians were known to have used what is often called “place holders” to distinguish between numbers like 809 and 89, they were nothing more than blank spaces or at times two wedge shapes like”. The first notions of zero as a number and its uses have been found in ancient Mathematical treatise from India. The word “Algorithm”: Al-Khwarizmi’s work, De numero indorum (Concerning the Hindu Art of Reckoning), was based presumably on an Arabic translation of Brahmagupta where he gave a full account of the Hindu numerals which was the first to expound the system with its digits 0,1,2,3,… ,9 and decimal place value which was a fairly recent arrival from India. The new notation came to be known as that of al-Khwarizmi, or more carelessly, algorismi; ultimately the scheme of numeration making use of the Hindu numerals came to be called simply algorism or algorithm, a word that, originally derived from the name al-Khwarizmi. • Representing large numbers: Mathematicians in India invented the base ten system in ancient times. But research did not stop there. The practice of representing large numbers also evolved in ancient India.

Notion of representing large numbers as powers of 10, one that was invented in India, turned out to be extremely handy. Economy during Ancient India The Indus civilization’s economy appears to have depended significantly on trade, which was facilitated by major advances in transport technology. These advances included bullock-driven carts that are identical to those seen throughout South Asia today, as well as boats. Most of these boats were probably small, flat-bottomed craft, perhaps driven by sail, similar to those one can see on the Indus River today; however, there is secondary evidence of sea-going craft. Archaeologists have discovered a massive, dredged canal and docking facility at the coastal city of Lothal.

Judging from the dispersal of Indus civilization artifacts, the trade networks, economically, integrated a huge area, including portions of Afghanistan, the coastal regions of Persia, northern and central India, and Mesopotamia. Rig Vedic society was characterized by a nomadic lifestyle, with cattle rearing being the chief occupation. Cattle and cows were held in high esteem and frequently appear in Rigvedic hymns; goddesses were often compared to cows, and gods to bulls. Agriculture grew more prominent with time as the community settled down. Money was unknown, and bartering with cattle and other valuables replaced financial commerce. Families were patrilineal, and people prayed for abundance of sons. Society was strictly organized in a system of caste.

The four major varnas were Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. Those who are outside these caste structures are known as adivasis. The food of the Rigvedic Aryans consisted of parched grain and cakes, milk and milk products, and various fruits and vegetables. Consumption of meat was also common among, at least among the upper classes. The Rigveda contains many references to animal sacrifice and meat offered to the gods. Technology during Ancient India Ancient India saw the relationship between knowledge of science and technology, with religion and social relations. The archaeological remains of the Indus Valley reveal knowledge of applied sciences.

Scientific techniques were used in irrigation, Metallurgy, making of fired bricks and pottery, and simple reckoning and measurement of areas and volumes. Aryan achievements in the field of astronomy, mathematics and medicine are well known. Chinese records indicate knowledge of a dozen books of Indian origin. Brahmagupta’s Sidhanta as well as Charaka’s and Susrata’s Samhitas were translated into Arabic in the 9th or 10th centuries A. D. In ancient Indian mathematics was known by the general name of Ganita, which included arithmetic, geometry, algebra, astronomy and astrology. It was Aryabhatta, who gave a new direction to trigonometry. The decimal system too was an innovation of India. By the third century B. C. mathematics, astronomy and medicine began to develop separately.

In the field of mathematics ancient Indians made three distinct contributions, the notation system, the decimal system and the use of zero. The earliest epigraphic evidence of the use of decimal system belongs to the fifth century A. D. Before these numerals appeared in the West they had been used in India for centuries. They are found in the inscriptions of Ashoka in the third century B. C. Indians were the first to use the decimal system. The famous mathematician Aryabhata (A. D. 476-500) was acquainted with it. The Chinese learnt this system from the Buddhist missionaries, and the western world borrowed it from the Arab as when they came in contact with India.

Zero was discovered by Indians in about the second century B. C. From the very beginning Indian mathematicians considered zero as a separate numeral, and it was used in this sense in arithmetic. In Arabia the earliest use of zero appears in A. D. 873. The Arabs learnt and adopted it from India and spread it in Europe. So far as Algebra is concerned both Indians and Greeks contributed to it, but in Western Europe its knowledge was borrowed not from Greece but from the Arabs who had acquired it from India. In the second century B. C. Apastemba contributed to practical geometry for the construction of altars on which the kings could offer sacrifices.

It describes acute angle, obtuse angle, right angle etc. Aryabhata formulated the rule for finding the area of a triangle, which led to the origin of trigonometry. The most famous work of his time is the Suryasiddanta the like of which was not found in Contemporary ancient east. During the Gupta period mathematics was developed to such an extent and more advanced than any other nation of antiquity. Quite early India devised a rudimentary algebra which led to more calculations than were possible for the Greeks and led to the study of number for its own sake. The earliest inscription regarding the data by a system of nine digits and a zero is dated as 595 A. D. vidently the system was known to mathematicians some centuries before it was employed in inscriptions. Indian mathematicians such as Brahmagupta (7th century), Mahavira (9th century) and Bhaskara (12th century) made several discoveries, which were known, to Europe only after Renaissance. The understood the importance of positive and negative quantities, evolved sound system of extracting squares and cube roots and could solve quadratic and certain types of indeterminate equations. Aryabhata gave approximate value of pie. It was more accurate than that of the Greeks. Also some strides were made in trigonometry, empirical geometry and calculus. Chiefly in astronomy the athematical implications of zero and infinity were fully realized unlike anywhere in the world. Among the various branches of mathematics, Hindus gave astronomy the highest place of honour. Suryasidhanta is the best know book on Hindu astronomy. The text was later modified two or three times between 500 A. D. and 1500 A. D. The system laid down in the book can even now be used to predict eclipse within an error of two or three hours. The most renowned scholars of astronomy were Aryabhata and Varhamihira. Aryabhata belonged to the fifth century and Varahamihira to the sixth. Aryabhata calculated the position of the planets according to the Babylonian method. He discovered the cause of lunar and solar eclipses.

The circumference of the earth, which he measured on the basis of the speculation, is considered to be correct even now. He pointed out that the sun is stationary and the earth rotates around it. The book of Aryabhata is the Aryabhatiya. Varhimihira’s well-known work is called Brihat Samhita which belongs to the sixth century A. D. Varhaihira stated that the moon rotates around the earth and the earth rotates around the earth rotates around the sun. He utilized several Greek works to explain the movement of the planets and some other astronomical problems. Although Greek knowledge influenced Indian astronomy, there is no doubt that Indian pursued the subject further and made use of it in their observations of the planets.

Aryabhata wrote a book when he was barely 23 years. Varhmihira of the sixth century wrote a summary of five astronomical books current wrote a summary of five astronomical books current in his time. Brahamagupta of the seventh century A. D. appreciated the value of observation and astronomy and his book was translated into Arabic. One last great scientist was Bhaskara II. One of the chapters in the book Sidhanta Shiromani, dealing with mathematics, is the well-known work of Lilavait. Nevertheless, Indian views on the origin and evolution of the universe was matter of religion rather than of science. The cosmic schemes of Hindus and Jains in fundamentals were the same.

All postulated a flat earth although Indian astronomers came to know that this was incorrect early in the Christian era. The idea of flat such remained for religious purposes. Regarding astronomy proper it was studied as a Vedanta. Its name was Jyotisa. A primitive kind of astronomy was developed mainly for the purpose of settling the dates and times at which periodical sacrifices were to be performed. Several Greek words gained momentum in Sanskrit through knowledge of Greek astronomy. The sixth century astronomer Varahamihira called one of his five astronomical systems as Romaka Sidhanta. It is only western astronomy that introduced in Indian the sign of the Zodaic.

Later, Indian astronomers made some advances on the knowledge of the Greeks and passed on their knowledge with that of mathematics via the Arabs to Europe. As early as seventh century, a Syrian astronomer knew of the greatness of Indian astronomy and mathematics. In the field of medicine, Aurveda was the contribution of India. Seven hundred hymns in the Vedas, particularly Atharva Veda, refer to topics of Ayurveda. Indeed, the whole approach was not scientific. The earliest mention of medicines is in the Atharva Veda. As in order ancient societies, the remedies recommended in it are replete with magical charms and spells. Medicine could not develop along scientific lines.

In post-Maurya time India witnessed two famous scholars of the Aurveda, Susrtua and Charaka. In the Susrutasmhita Susruta describes methods of operating contract, stone disease and several other ailments. He mentions as many as 121 implements to be used for operations. For the treatment of disease he lays special emphasis on diet. And cleanliness for Charaka wrote the Charakasamhita in the second century A. D. It is like encyclopedia of Indian medicines. It describes various types of fever, leprosy, hysteria and tuberculosis. Possibly Charaka did not know that some of these are infections. His book contains the names of a large number of plants and herbs, which were to be used as medicine.

The book is thus useful not only for study of ancient Indian medicine but also for ancient Indian flora and chemistry. In subsequent centuries Indian medicines developed on the lines laid down by Charaka. The Vedic hymns attribute various diseases to demons and spirits and the remedies for hymns prescribing correctly the symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis, and connecting dropsy with heart diseases. However, national medicine began to 800 B. C. Medicine became a regular subject of study at centers like Taxila and Varanasi. The latter specialized in surgery. Susrutasmhita was compiled in the fourth century A. D. Charaka compiled the teachings of two of his predecessors who served at Taxila.

Charaka and Susruta’s Samhits reached as far as Manchuria through translations in Tibetan and other Asian languages. In the eighth century A. D. these books influenced European medicine as carried over by two Arabs. Charaka Samhita was published as late as 1550 in Arabic. Despite these achievements, medicine did not make any remarkable strides, for absence of dissection led to ignorance of anatomy and physiology. Indians were equally aware of the functions of internal organs such as lungs and brain. Surgery of some kind was even during the Vedic period. It was only from the time of Susruta that surgery came to occupy an important place in medicine.

Surgical operations were performed like taking the fetus out of the womb, including caesarian, section, treatment of fistula, removal of stone from bladder and plastic surgery for the nose. Despite the developments as the above in medicine, ancient Indian doctors, in general had no knowledge of the functions of brain, although they knew the importance of the spinal cord and the existence of nervous system. Once again social taboos stood in the way of the growth of medical knowledge. It was a taboo to touch dead bodies. Despite the fact that the physiological knowledge of ancient Indians was very poor, Indians evolved empirical surgery. They knew bone-setting, plastic surgery and surgeons in ancient India were experts is repairing noses, ears and lips lost, or injured by mutilation.

The physician was a respectable member of society as the Vaidyas were ranked higher in the hierarchy. Even to this day the rules of professional behaviour laid down in medical tests are almost the same as those of Hippocrates. Of course, some statements at one place state that the Physicians should not betray the patients and should be always of pleasant speech. In this context, he pleads that every day they must pray on rising and going to bed, since the work of the welfare of the all beings specially cows. Regarding physics, it was closely linked with religion and theology and it even differed from sect to sect. Almost all religions believed that the universe consisted of elements like earth, air, water, and akasa (ether).

Most schools maintained that there were as many types of atoms as there were elements. Some Buddhists conceived atom as the minutes object capable of occupying space but also as occupying the minutest possible duration of time coming into being and vanishing almost in an instant only to be succeeded by another atom caused by the first. This somewhat resembles the quantum theory of Planck. The Vaisesika School believed a single atom to be a point in space completely without magnitude. Further, most of the schools believed that atoms constitute molecules. However, the Indian atomic theories were not based on experiment but intuitive logic. The great theologian Sankara strongly argued against their existence.

Beyond this knowledge of atoms, physics in India did not develop much. However, in the science of acoustics, India made real discovers. Based on experience for this correct recitation on Vedas, the human era was highly trained for the phonetic study – distinguished musical tones far closer than those of other ancient musical systems much earlier than other civilization. Regarding chemistry and metallurgy too, some progress was made in ancient times. The Harappans developed metallurgy of copper and bronze about 2500 B. C. The Vedic Aryans tanned leather, fermented grains and fruits, and dyed scale production of copper, iron and steel, brass, silver and gold and their alloys.

Indian steel was highly esteemed in the ancient world and it was exported in large quantities. Tin and mercury were imported and worked. And from the seventh century, alchemy was referred to in literature. The medical chemistry of ancient India did succeed in producing many important alkalis, acids and metallic salts. It is claimed by Bashama that ancient Indians ever discovered a form of gun powder. The coming of middle ages, Indian chemists, like their counterparts in the rest of the world, became increasingly interested in a specific remedy for all diseases, the source of perpetual youth, and even the surest means to salvation. Although they could not make precious metals, they could understand the chemistry of metallic salts.

The heights attained by Indians in metallurgy and engineering are borne out by the almost pure copper stature of Buddha found at Sultanganj and the famous iron Pillar at Mehrauli (Delhi which has been able to withstand rain and weather for centuries without rusting). Famous personalities: Panini Panini was born in Shalatula, a town near to Attock on the Indus river in present day Pakistan. The dates given for Panini are pure guesses. Experts give dates in the 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th century BC and there is also no agreement among historians about the extent of the work which he undertook. Panini was a Sanskrit grammarian who gave a comprehensive and scientific theory of phonetics, phonology, and morphology.

Sanskrit was the classical literary language of the Indian Hindus and Panini is considered the founder of the language and literature. It is interesting to note that the word “Sanskrit” means “complete” or “perfect” and it was thought of as the divine language, or language of the gods. A treatise called Astadhyayi (or Astaka ) is Panini’s major work. It consists of eight chapters, each subdivided into quarter chapters. In this work Panini distinguishes between the language of sacred texts and the usual language of communication. Panini gives formal production rules and definitions to describe Sanskrit grammar. Starting with about 1700 basic elements like nouns, verbs, vowels, consonants he put them into classes.

The construction of sentences, compound nouns etc. is explained as ordered rules operating on underlying structures in a manner similar to modern theory. In many ways Panini’s constructions are similar to the way that a mathematical function is defined today. Aryabhata Aryabhata was born in 476 AD, was the first astronomer of India. His book, the Aryabhatiya, presented astronomical and mathematical theories in which the Earth was taken to be spinning on its axis and the periods of the planets were given with respect to the sun. He gifted 0 “zero” to the world. Ashoka Asoka was a famous king of Ancient India. He won several battles to widen his kingdom.

After the historic Kalinga war he turned to budhism. Ahimsa and non- voilance became the most important pillar of state policy. Humanitarian ethics of Buddhism influence all his actions. Ashoka got his edicts inscribed on monolithic stone pillars adorned with strikingly beautiful animal capitals. One of these – the lion capital found at Sarnath near Benaras – has been chosen as the state emblem of the Republic of India. Ashoka endeavoured to set up an enlightened government for a genuine welfare state. Samudra Gupta Samudra Gupta extended the boundaries of the Gupta empire considerably. The pillar inscription at Allahabad provides a detailed account of his conquests.

His military campaigns ranged from Nepal in the North to modern Tamilnadu in the South, from Assam in the East to the borders of present day Afghanistan in the West. The unification of the greater part of the land was his major achievement. His coins portray him as a patron of arts and one of his images is that of a Lute player. Chandragupta Maurya India attained political unity for the first time under Chandragupta. He laid the foundations of a powerful empire. Chandragupta was, according to folklore, assisted by a Brahmin called Vishnugupta, also known as Kautilya or Chanakya, who is credited with the authorship of Arthashastra the famous work on ancient Indian statecraft.

Meghasthenes, a Greek traveller visited India at this time and although only fragments of his travelogue – Indica are available to us, his account supplements the information provided by the Arthashastra and the other literary sources about governance and social life during the Maurya period. Education during Ancient India India has a rich tradition of learning and education right from the antiquity. These were handed over generations to generations either through oral or written medium. The highly esteemed Vedas have come to down to us. They existed for nearly 2000 years before they were known in India. It was the knowledge of acoustics that enabled ancient Indians to orally transmit the Vedas from generation to generation. Institutional form of imparting learning came into existence in the early centuries of the Christian era. The approach to learning was to study logic and epistemology.

Hindus, Buddhists and Jains followed the study of logic, one of the most important topics of Indian thoughts was pramana or means of reliable knowledge. The Nyaya schools upheld four pramanas – perceptions of are liable by analogy or comparison, word (Sabda), and pronunciation of a reliable authority such as the Vedas. The Vedanta school added one more to it i. e. intuition. It is probably while studying the process of inference that the schools of true logic arose. Ancient Indian postulated syllogism though not as accurate as that of Aristotle. Yet, they recognize some of the major fallacies of logic like reduction and absurdum, circular argument,infinite regression, dilemma, and ignorance. In the field epistemology, Jains contributed the most.

There were not only two possibilities of existence and non-existence but seven more. Although the modern logicians might laugh at this pedantic system of ontological and epistemological reality they concede that the world is more complex and subtle than we think it to be. Regarding institutional form of education the first was the guru-sishya system. According to sacred texts, the training of the Brahmin pupil took place at the home of a Brahmin teacher. In some texts the guru is depicted as the poor ascetic and it is the duty of the student to beg for his teacher. The first lesson that was taught to the student was the performance of sandhya and also reciting of gayatri.

The family functioned as a domestic school, an asrama or a hermitage where the mental faculties of the pupils were developed by the teacher’s constant attention and personal instruction. Education treated as a matter of individual concern, did not admit of the method of mass production applicable in industry. The making of man was regarded as an artistic and not a mechanical process. Indeed, the aim of education was the developing of the pupil’s personality, his innate and latent capacities. This view of education as a process of one’s inner growth and self-fulfillment evolved its own technique, its rules, methods and practices. The thinking principle, Manana Shakti was reckoned higher than the subject of thinking. So the primary subject of education was the mind itself.

According to the ancient Indian theory of education, the training of the mind and the process of thinking, are essential for the acquisition of knowledge. The chase counts more than the game. So the pupil had mainly to educate himself and achieves his own mental growth. Education was reduced to the three simple processes of Sravana, Manana and Niddhyaasana. Sravana was listening to the truths as they fell from the lips of the teacher. Knowledge was technically called Sruti or what the ear heard and not what was seen in writing. The second process of knowledge called Manana implies that the pupil has to think out for himself the meaning of the lessons imparted to him orally by his teacher so that they may be assimilate fully.

The third step known as Nidhyasana means complete comprehension by the pupil of the truth that is taught so that he may live the truth and not merely explain it by word. Knowledge must result in realization. The admission was made by the formal ceremony Upanayana or initiation by which the pupil left the home of his natural parents for that of the preceptor. In this new home he had a second birth and was called Dvijya or twice-born. Besides these regular schools of instructions, there were special institutions for the promotion of advance study and research. These are called in the Rig Veda as Brahmana-Sangha, Academies of learned most its discussions hammered into shape the very language of the country, the refined language of Sanksrit (Samkrata) as the Vehicle of highest thought.

These Academics were called parisads, there is a reference to the Pancala parisad in the Upanishads, in whose proceedings even kings participated, learning was also prompted by discussions at public meetings which were a regular of rural life, and were addressed by wandering scholars known as Carakas, These scholars toured the country to deliver public discourses and invite discussion. What might count as earliest literary congress of the world was the congress of philosophers which was codification of Brahmanical philosophy by discussing the subject under the direction of the master philosopher, Yajnavalkya. In these deliberations at the highest level, a lady- philosopher named Gargi was a prominent participant beside men like Uddalaka Arni. Obviously, in those days women were admitted to the highest knowledge and did not suffer from any education disabilities.

There was equality between the sexes in the filed of knowledge. The Rig Veda mentions women Rais called Brahmanavadinis. To begin with, in ancient India; the main subject was the Veda. The teacher would instruct handful of students seated on ground. For many hours daily they would repeat verses after verses of the Vedas till they attain mastery of at least one of them. To ensure correctness of memory, the hymns were taught in more than one way. Soon the curriculum was expanded. The limbs of the Veda or the six Vedangas were taught – the performance of sacrifice, correct pronunciation, knowledge of prosody, etymology, grammer, and jyotisha or the science of calendar.

Also in the post-Vedic era, teachers often instructed their students in the six schools of Philosophy. The writers of Smritis maintain that young women of upper class under went this kind of training. This is a doubtful contention. Princes and other leading Kshatriyas were trained in all the manifold sciences to make them fit for government. Most boys of the lower orders learnt their trades from their fathers. Some cities became renowned because of their teachers. Chief among them were – Varanasi, Taxila from the day of Buddha and Kanchi in the beginning of the Christian era. Varanasi was famous for its religious teachers. Taxila was known for its secular studies.

Among the famous men connected with Taxila was Panini, the grammarian of the fifth or fourth century B. C. : Kautilya, the Brahmin minister of Chandragupta Maurya and Charaka one of the two leading authorities of Indian medical sciences. The institutions imparting Vedic knowledge that exists even today. There were also universities like Taxila and Ujjain for medicine and learning including mathematics and astronomy respectively. In the south Kanchi became an important center of learning. Hiuen Tsang remarks that Vallabhi was as great as Nalanda and Vikramashila. Although the Smritis maintained that a small number of students study under a single teacher, university turned towns came into existence like Varanasi, Taxila etc.

At Varanasi there were 500 students and a number of teachers. Charitable people maintained the whole establishment. Ideally, the teacher asked no fee, but the students repaid his debt by their service to the teacher. A Jataka story tells of how a teacher of Taxila treated well the students who paid him money while keeping other waiting. It is also interesting to note that in Taxila even married people were admitted as students. Out of all the Universities, Nalanda and imposed structures. Eight Colleges were built by different patterns including one by the king of Sri Vijaya (Sumatra). One of the colleges was four storeyed high as stated by Hiuen-Tsang.

Every facility existed for studying various kinds of subjects in the University. There were three great libraries as per Tibetan records. Nalanda attracted students not only from different parts of India but also from Tibet and China. The standards of examination were stiff, and only those who could pass the test prescribed by the dvarapandita or the scholar at the gate were admitted to this university. Also, for being admitted to the university, candidates were required to be familiar with old and new books. Nalanda was one of the earliest examples of residential cum-teaching institutions which housed thousands of monks devoted to learning, philosophy and meditation.

Over 10,000 students including teachers lived and studied at the university. They came from various parts of the world apart from India,Central Asia, China and Korea. Though Nalanda was primarily a Buddhist university its curricula included Hindu scriptures, philosophy and medicine as recorded by Hiuen-Tsang. Logic and exegetics were pre eminent because these students were expected to enter into dialogue with visiting doctors of all schools. This compulsion of public debate made both teachers and students become familiar with all systems of thought in accurate summary. The university had also succession of brilliant teachers. Dharmapala was a Tamil noble from Kanchi in the south. Janamitra come from another country.

Silabhadra, the saintly guru of Hiuen-Tsang, came from Assam and he was a converted Brahmin. A great achievement of the University was that it was able to continuously rejuvenate Buddhism in far off countries. Tibetan records mention a succession of learned monks who visited their country. It is also said that Sudhakara Simha went to China and worked there on the translation of Buddhist texts. Ancient Gods The religion of the Hindus is one of the oldest religions in the world. It started before the emergence of the first known civilizations in the Orient and probably before the first scripts, which appeared around 3000B. C in Egypt and in Mesopotamia. The Aryans entered India and destroyed the cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro.

After setting on the plains they gradually spread out and pushed the original inhabitants to further south. However they allowed them to venerate their own Gods and rituals. The ancient Indian society honoured first the sun and the moon the latter often being considered as a feminine deity who was both the companion of the sun and the Great Mother of life and the universe. This very ancient cult of a feminine deity had its origin in Indus valley civilization, which was stamped out by the Aryans who turned to patriarchal worship more suited to their aggressive and wild nature. However slow evolution towards Hinduism and intermarriage the Aryans return to ancient rituals and cult of the mother goddess.

This was accompanied by worship of Shiva-the phallic God who was represented by 8 million yonis. There were no less than 3000 Gods venerated in Vedic times. The principal divinity was Indra – the God of War and Thunder whose power was capable of destroying the wall of cities of burning them down in order to conquer and pillage them. He was the King of Gods. Brahma was the creator or protector who was also given the name of Narayana Prajapati or Pursha. He was the father of all creatures. Agni was the God of fire. He was the guardian of the world and giver of eternal life. Surya the Sun God was also deeply venerated. The other secondary Gods were Arjuna or the God of the dawn and the charioteer of the sun.

He was the son of Vinata and the wise Kasyapa. The Kubera was the God of wealth. Vayu or the God of wind. Wind is the friend of fire–perfumed and caressing, it wonders around the abode of the gods, stimulating the senses. It is the messenger of the gods, the breath of the world, the bringer of life to all beings. The many ancient Vedic gods remained unchanged from Pre-Vedic times. Their names were passed down by oral tradition from time immemorial. We also see some gods (who had been thought of as beneficent spirits) being demoted by successive generations to secondary divinities and then to wicked, cruel spirits. New gods then replaced them.

The Vedic period passes smoothly into the Hindu period, which was flourishing by 700 to 600BC. With the modifications of the ancient gods a whole new spirituality developed that carried a real harmony of life, light, mental purification and spiritual searching for the Higher Self. Medicine during Ancient India Ancient India saw great advancements in medical science. Some of these fields were dental surgery, cataract extraction and plastic surgery. It is amazing that even in the absence of anesthesia some of the complex operations are performed. Around 800 B. C the first instances of surgery were recorded. It was considered, as one of the eight branches of Ayurveda.

Shushruta- Samhita is the oldest treatise dealing with surgery. The main medical practitioners were Atraya, Charaka and Shusruta. Shushruta studied human anatomy with an aid of a dead body. He had described in great detail surgery in eight parts which included chedya,lekhya,vedhya,esya,ahrya,vsraya and sivya. He excelled in plastic surgery and ophthalmology (removing cataracts). The restoration of mutilated nose or rhinoplasty was one of the greatest contributions of Shushruta. The success rate was very high attracting people from all the country and outside. He meticulously carried out the operation almost similar to the steps followed by modern day plastic surgeons.

Medical tradition goes back to Vedic period when Dhanvantari was worshipped as God of medicine and Ashwin Kumars were given divine status. Ayurveda was an indigenous system of medicine meaning the science of longevity. It constitutes information about diseases, their diagnosis and expected cures. Charaka was a noted Ayurveda practitioner who wrote that physician who fails to enter the body of a patient with the lamp of knowledge and understanding can never treat diseases. He put more emphasis on prevention rather than cure. He made these remarks in his famous treatise Charaka Samahita which are held in great reverence even today. The other notable fields were physiology, etiology and embryology. He also wrote extensively on digestion, metabolism and immune system.

He wrote that body functions as it contains three dosha- bile, phlegm and wind. These are produced when dhatus – blood, flesh and marrow act on food consumed. The body becomes sick when there is imbalance between three doshas. He prescribed drugs to restore this balance. Charaka also wrote about genetics like the factors responsible for sex of a child. Agnivesa another famous physician wrote an encyclopedic treatise in the eighth- century B. C. Ayurveda as an art of healing was treated with respect in ancient period. The knowledge was systemized being considered at par with Vedas. This body of knowledge was spread among sages, hermits and other religious men who moved from one place to another. Those ho solely practiced this were known as Vaidyas belonging to Brahmin caste. The treatises of ayurveda were passed from generations to generations. Some Facts about Ancient India • Our country’s name ‘India’ was taken up from River Indus where the first settlers established their home. The river was worshipped by Aryans as Sindhu. • The number system was first invented in ancient India. Zero was first used by Aryabhatta. • The Decimal system and Place value system were developed in India in 100 B. C. • Takshila holds distinction of being world’s first university. It was established in 700 BC. More than 10,000 students some of them from far-off countries like China and Japan enrolled in about 60 subjects.

It was one of the greatest achievements of Ancient India. • The earliest school of medicine mankind knew Ayurveda. Charaka consolidated it some 2500 years ago. Over 2600 years ago Sushruta the father of surgery conducted surgeries like cataract, fratures, and rhinoplasty and brain surgeries without the use of anesthesia. • Navigation started in the river Sindu 6000 years ago. Derived from the Sanskrit word Navgatih ancient Indians excelled in this art. ‘Navy’ word is also derived from Sanskrit word ‘nou’. • Bhaskaracharya calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun hundreds of years ago. Guess his calculation done in 5th century- 365. 58756484 days. • Budhayana was the first Indian mathematician (6th century) to calculate the value of ‘pi’ and explained the concept of Pythagorean theorem. Ancient India is the home of algebra, trigonometry and calculus. Greeks and Romans used the numbers as big as 106 whereas ancient Indians used numbers as big as 10*53 (10 to the power of 53). • Saurashtra is the home of earliest reservoir and dam built for irrigation. The records of King Rudradaman I of 150 BC show that a beautiful lake called Sudarshana was constructed on the hills of Raivataka during Chandragupta Maurya’s time. • Shataranja or Ashtapada or common chess was invented in India.


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