Barbie Analysis

Executive Summary Barbie has become one of the best selling toy brands in the world helping Mattel become one of the largest toy makers. Mattel has had much success with it popular Barbie dolls for over fifty years. However it seems every product has a life cycle and in recent years Barbie has begun to decline in popularity due to recent technological trends and stiff competition. Today young girls have become more interested in mp3 players and ipods rather than playing with dolls. At home and abroad competitors are producing new doll with different characteristics that persuade consumers to purchase these products over Barbie.

Competitors have begun stealing significant market share away from Mattel who depends on Barbie for 20 percent of its annual sales. Abroad Mattel faces major obstetrical as its Barbie products are more standardized, while it competition has created a more localized product that better suites the needs of foreign consumers. Situation Analysis The Middle East Mattel has had some success in India by producing Barbie dolls adorned with a head spot and sari. Mattel still struggles to produce Barbie product that embraces ideology and appearances of the Middle East.

The brand image of Barbie, her characteristics and portrayed lifestyle, go against the morals and demeanor of religious and political standards that girls are taught to embrace in the region. Latin America Latin America was one of the first non-U. S. markets Barbie entered into. Barbie seemed to have success until its market share began to be overtaken by a competitor Estrela. Estrela is a Brazilian based company who created a much different looking doll called the Susi doll. The Susi doll looks much different than the Barbie, it has a small chest and waist, but wide thighs and dark skin, similar to Brazilian girls.

The Susi doll seems to be more attractive than the Barbie doll because girls are able to identify and see themselves in the doll. In addition, the Susi doll is sold at a much lower price than Barbie. Due to the extreme popularity of Susi in Brazil, Estrela has now began selling the doll in Chile, Argentia, Paraguay, and Uruaguy. Japan (Jeff) Internal Analysis Overall Strengths · Sold in more than a 150 countries · 60% of its annual revenue is in U. S. market · Best brand in the world, Mattel is world’s largest toy maker. Barbie has been around for more than 50 years · Huge success in Europe Overall Weaknesses · Inability to localize product in foreign markets · Negative portrayal of girls image · Over priced in accordance with competition and economy in many foreign markets · Popularity is declining in home and abroad , inability to keep up with trends or consumer needs/wants Implications Jarin) External Analysis The Middle East Opportunities · Create doll that relates to customs and culture Steal market share from Fulla Brand Threats · Fulla Brand introduced in 2003 embraces customs, morals, and appearance · Sara, Dora, and Laila-local competitor’s dolls that are patterned after customs and characteristics of natives. · Barbie is “forbidden by Islam” Objectives and Strategy Product: Dolls should reflect color and characteristics of culture. Mattel needs to change story or personification of Barbie to reflect values or attributes that are in accordance with political and religious standards.

Advertising: full color print ads displayed in shop windows. Direct Mail or newspaper inserts. Sales Promotion: Buy one doll and get some accessories for free. Consumer is able to choose Sari or different designs of head spots. Distribution: Dolls should be distributed in same locations as competition. Dolls should be located where children can easy access them and present to parents. Price Policy: Price of dolls should be simular to Fulla brand, or slightly higher. In order to keep perception of quality high , Barbie line’s price must be competitive.

Research: Face to Face interviews should be conducted to determine whether or not brand image would improve with new attributes and styles, prototypes or images of dolls could be displayed. Latin America Opportunities In Brazil alone dolls account for 37 percent of the country’s annual $430 million in toy sales. Make a Barbie doll that has similar features to the Susi doll. Lower price and similar physical features. Threats Susi doll manufactured by Estrela, is cheaper than Barbie Susi has realistic Brazilian features depicting girls as they are and not how they want to be when they grow up. Blonde Hair, Small Chest, Wide Thighs, and Dark Skin) Estrela is beginning to cut in to Mattel’s markets share with the Susi doll Due to the popularity of the Susi doll has been released in Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Implications Mattel is not meeting the consumer’s wants with it Barbie doll. Mattel has made the mistake of being ethnocentric in creating a standardized product. Stiff competition from the Susi doll is stealing market share from Mattel because it is able to meet the consumers needs and wants better than the Americanized Barbie doll.

Mattel needs to create a more localized product to regain its sliding market share. Objectives and Strategy Product: Mattel should develop a new lower end doll under a new name, and give it similar characteristics to the Susi doll. By do so the new doll will be able to compete better with the popular Susi doll. Mattel should also continue selling the Barbie doll as there is still a market for it. In addition, by not calling the new lower end doll by the Barbie name, there will be less risk of damaging the consumers perception of the existing Barbie doll as being a superior product.

Advertising: Advertising needs to be focused on radio, T. V. , and billboards due to the fact that mail may be unreliable in many areas in Latin America. Advertisements should be created that make the consumer aware of the new lower end doll and should persude the consumer to take action and purchase the product. Sales Promotion: A coupon could be placed inside of the packaging of the new lower end dolls giving the consumer 50% off the purchase of another doll. Distribution: The Barbie doll should try to be sold in upscale retail stores and malls(if they exist).

The new lower end doll should be sold in retail stores and local markets. Price Policy: The Barbie doll should stay at a high price to give the consumer the perception of a superior product, however the new doll should be price much lower. The new doll should be priced similarly to the Susi doll. Research: Before creating a new doll research needs to be done to see what exact characteristic girls need to see in a doll to want to purchase it. If it is legal focus groups could be held to help design and choose possible prototype dolls. Japan

Opportunities · World’s second largest toy market · Japan toy market is worth $8 billion · video/computer games · Flavas doll line · Better technology and more ways to build brand awareness Threats · Bratz line of dolls · In 2003 Barbie’s share of fashion doll market dropped from 85% to 70% · “cooler” lines of dolls are being established Implications (Jeff) Objectives and Strategy(Jeff) Product Advertising Sales Promotion Distribution Price Policy Research Overall Recommendations

In order for Mattel to regain its market share in its foreign markets it needs to create a more localized product in each market that meets the desires of its foreign consumers. Different consumers in different countries have different tastes. Barbie is sold in more than 150 countries. In the countries where Barbie is not selling well, Mattel needs to hire local experts in their perspective toy industry, have them team up with the marketing personnel from Mattel, and develop new products or change certain characteristics of the Barbie doll to make it more attractive to the foreign consumer.

Below is our old out line Pages 143 – 145 in your textbook have all the information you need (and all you are allowed to reference) to determine how to market Barbie to the following regions: Also we need external analysis for each region after which we state Objectives, Strategy and specific Marketing Tactics for each market, and we need to impliment a SWOT analysis too. 1) The Middle East (Jarin) Strengths 2) Latin America Strengths Latin America is one of the first non-US market Mattel entered Weaknesses

Barbie is over priced Barbie is lacking an authentic Latin American look. Barbie doll created to help girls fanaticize about growing up. Opportunities In Brazil alone dolls account for 37 percent of the country’s annual $430 million in toy sales. Make a Barbie doll that has similar features to the Susi doll. Threats Susi doll manufactured by Estrela, is cheaper than Barbie Susi has realistic Brazilian features depicting girls as they are and not how they want to be when they grow up. Blonde Hair, Small Chest, Wide Thighs, and Dark Skin) Estrela is beginning to cut in to Mattel’s markets share with the Susi doll Due to the popularity of the Susi doll has been released in Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. 3) Japan SWOT Analysis For Japan Keeping Strategic Partnership With Bandai Strengths – Partnership has eliminated chronic operating losses – Bandai has a better grasp on what the target market needs/wants – Bandai is Japan’s largest toy company Weaknesses – Lack of understanding of target market Decreasing brand value of Barbie – Partnership takes money away from sole ownership – Lack of adapting to change, need to build foundation for this age and time Opportunities – Worlds second largest toy market – Japan toy market is worth $8 billion – video/computer games – Flavas doll line – Better technology and more ways to build brand awareness Threats – Bratz line of dolls – In 2003 Barbie’s share of fashion doll market dropped from 85% to 70% – “cooler” lines of dolls are being established

Food Inc

The movie makes some really good points. The best point is that subsidized corn artificially lowers the cost of animal feed and high-fructose corn syrup. This creates a tax-subsidized economic incentive for people to choose fast food over nutritious options. Scrapping farm subsidies including corn would be a great idea (that the movie doesn’t propose). It has a good segment about how Monsanto is using intellectual property law to unfairly create a US soybean monopoly, suing farmers who never bought Monsanto seed and forcing them to capitulate because of the sheer weight of legal bills.

But the movie descends into sensationalism. For example, it takes a sad case of a kid named Kevin who died of E Coli poisoning after eating a hamburger. It traces the industry’s response — which is to use ammonia to make sure that almost no E Coli survives — and criticizes its solution while playing ominous music in the background along with unanswered cries of anguish from Kevin’s mother. It fails to mention that (1) all E Coli dies when meat is cooked properly (2) using ammonia to kill E Coli is an ingenious idea that’s very effective (3) the food with the greatest risk of E Coli poisoning is organic spinach.

It doesn’t mention how the fast food industry eliminated the use of hydrogenated vegetable oil, almost completely eliminating trans fat from fast food. It has a scene comparing the resources used by a free range cow farmer who has about 20 cows versus an industrial slaughterhouse that processes thousands — failing to mention that if the free range farmer produced cows on the same scale he would use 4x to 10x the resources for the same output. The movie takes an ill-advised stance against genetically modified food (google Norman Borlaugh).

It makes several self-defeating arguments (like arguing that our industrially-produced food is infected and resource-intensive and that we should pay more to eat organic — which is actually much more resource intensive and more likely to be contaminated by bacteria because of the use of poop as fertilizer instead of nitrates). The movie makes some interesting points. But the whole “big business bad” thing is a completely useless attitude that is a constant source of irritation to me personally.

People and businesses have, do, will, and should act in their own best interests. The question is which policies should be created to incentivize wise outcomes? Regarding Monsanto, the problem isn’t evil big business, it’s that the US should reform its legal system to act like the UK’s where if you sue someone and lose then you have to pay their legal fees. That would prevent Monsanto’s abuses of IP law (and would accomplish tort reform in medical malpractice).

Guilt: and Then There Were None

Guilt: And Then There Were None And Then There Were None is a book about many mysteries. It is all about planning and plotting deaths and trying to solve the mystery behind them. Many different themes reoccur throughout this novel. One main theme that truly seems to either severely affect or have no affect at all on the characters is guilt. Guilt plays a huge role when it comes to the deaths in this book. Many characters struggle a great deal with it. Vera Claythorne is one of the main characters who has the hardest time with feeling guilt in her life.

She is accused of killing a little boy named Cyril. Cyril was drowning and she tried to save him, but the mystery was whether or not she truly tried to save him. Vera is nervous to go back on the sea because it reminds her of her crime. She tries really hard not to harp on her past but it is all she can think about and being on the sea makes it worse. When Vera accepts that she is guilty and tries to move on, she comes to the conclusion that everyone else must too be guilty for something and tries to figure it all out. Towards the end of the novel, Vera’s guilt really starts to get the best of her.

She had gone mad because of it. In one part of the novel, she is by the shore and she feels the seaweed on her shoulder. She gets freaked out because she thinks the seaweed on her shoulder is Cyril’s hand. Towards the very end of the novel, Vera learns to accept that she truly did plan and plot to kill Cyril. Her admitting to herself that she truly did plan and plot Cyril’s death causes her more madness. She realizes that there is no room for forgiveness. She deserves a punishment… left alone on the island she kills herself. General Macarthur feels some guilt for his past in the army.

He was accused of killing Arthur Richmond, a man who was serving under him in the war in France and was killed in action. He told Vera that Richmond was his wife’s lover and he was so upset that he sent Richmond on an impossible mission. Nobody knew that Richmond was Macarthur’s wife’s lover. Although many people didn’t know what the true story behind it all, Macarthur felt that those few who did were looking down on him. Macarthur is happy for any excuse to leave the city because he’s sure everyone suspects his guilt. Macarthur throughout the story starts to put the pieces together and realizes that they were all sent here for a reason.

General Macarthur tells Vera, “You’ll be glad too, when the end comes. ” (Christie 114). He believes that he was sent to the island to die because of what he did. In the one part of the novel, he sits by the shore, accepting that he will die soon and waits. Someone then comes up and hits him on the head and he dies. He was the third to die on the island. Dr. Armstrongfeels guilt for leaving a woman on the operating table. He was accused of killing a patient on the operating table. He was not a very skilled doctor and some say that he was supposedly drunk during the operation and that led to her death. Dr.

Armstrong feels guilt and then he doesn’t. It comes and goes with him. But at one point he starts dreaming about the woman who died on his operating table. Armstrong became Owens’s seventh victim after being pushed to his death into the sea. Throughout the story many characters feel guilt for the things they did in their lives. Guilt seems to take over Vera Claythorne the most out of all the characters. Out of the three characters listed above, guilt seems to take over Dr. Armstrong the least. Although many characters admit to what they did and we know what the story line tells us, we will never know what truly happened on Indian Island…

Leadership Functions

The fourteen leadership functions that Yukl describes are planning and organizing, problem solving, clarifying, informing, monitoring, motivating, consulting, recognizing, supporting, managing conflict and team building, networking, delegating, developing and mentoring, and rewarding (Hall & Tolbert, 2009). Planning and organizing consists of determining goals and defining how those goals will be achieved. Problem solving involves identifying the problem, listing possible solutions, choosing the best solution, implementing the solution and finally monitoring the results.

Planning is proactive while problem solving tends to be more reactive (Wart, 2005). Clarifying consists of ensuring our followers know what they need to do and what the expected results the work is. Informing provides information to subordinates and peers to begin the coordination of work efforts. Monitoring within the leadership role is an important function. Leaders must monitor their environments to ensure the effectivness of their processes, the status of their projects, their subordinate’s competancies, and the quality of products and services they produce or deliver (Wart, 2005).

Motivating refers to enhancing the inner drives and positive intentions of subordinates or peers to perform well through incentives and inspiration. Consulting involves feedback via question and answering, and the collection of data. Recognizing employees whenever possible, where appropriate, enforces good performance and motivates employees to continually strive to reach the goals of the organization. Recognition costs nothing and the payback is tremendous (Wart, 2005).

Supportive leadership consists of consideration and acceptance of one’s needs and feelings. This type of function within the leadership role increases employee’s satisfaction with their jobs (Wart, 2005). Managing conflict and team building go hand in hand. When conflict is managed within a team cooperation is established. Conflict generally arises when individuals are unclear about what their roles and responsibilities are. Networking is crutial for leaders to gather information, gain support and resources within and outside of their groups.

Networking helps leaders advance more quickly and futher within the organization (Wart, 2005). Delegating allows leaders to share their power with their subordinates and peers. It involves two components, assigning the responsibility and then allowing the individual the authority to follow through with the completion of those responsibilities. Developing and mentoring refers to what leaders do to develop the careers of their subordinates and peers by counseling them and identifying both efficiencies and deficiencies in their performance.

Rewarding subordinates via praise or monetary boosts employee satifaction and performance (Druckman, 1997). The three most important functions in terms of producing leadership success from a career perspective are developing and mentoring, delegating and recognition. Within the organization that I work, leaders identify individuals they wish to invest their time and energies in developing careers through a process called talent planning.

These individuals are recognized for their exceptional contributions to the organization and subsequently delegated more responsibility and authority working at a higher level than than current position and outside of their comfort zone. Developing and mentoring play a key role in the ensuring the future success of the individual in their new role. Leaders often provide feedback, coaching and training while developing those talented individuals for which they have chosen to advance.

Project Report on Summer Training in Kotak Mahindra Life Insurence & Recruitment Process


MUSHFIK HASNEN RIJVI, Enrollment No. 07/9176 has supervision his project report on RECURIMENT OF LIFE ADVISOR. The work embodied in this report is original and is of the standard expected of an BBA student and has not been submitted in part or full to this or any other university for the award of any degree diploma. He has completed all requirements of guidelines for project report and the work is fit for evaluation. We found him sharp and intelligent and wish all the best in his future endeavors. MISS. MRIDULA CHANDA PROJECT SUPERVISOR Aishwarya College of Education UNDERTAKING

I hereby declare that total work of this project entitled “RECURIMENT OF LIFE ADVISOR “ in company’s name is an original work of mine is done during the month June – July as part of Summer training under the guidance of ASHISH KHATRI to the best of my knowledge and beliefs the facts mentioned in the report are true. MUSHFIK HASNEN RIJVI E/NO 07/9176 B. B. A. Part III ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:- I am highly thankful to Mr. Narayan singh (ABM) to provide me an opportunity to work in his esteemed organization as Summer Trainee. I am greatly indebted to my project supervisor Mr.

Ashish khatri (Senior Sales Manager) for constant guidance throughout the course of this work and for providing me all necessary information for my project work. I am also thankful to Mr. Harsh Chauhan (Marketing Head) for giving me necessary information at any time. MUSHIK HASNEN RIJVI E/NO: – 06/93 Content 1) Introduction 2) Introduction of life insurance 3) Method of recruitment 4) Company Orientation 5) kotak Life Insurance 6) Business Module A. Alternate Channel B. Tide channel 7) Life Advisor 8) Conclusion 9) Reward & Recognition 10) Recommendation INTRODUCTION OF LIFE INSURANCE

Life insurance is a contract between the policy owner and the insurer, where the insurer agrees to pay a sum of money upon the occurrence of the insured individual’s or individuals’ death or other event, such as terminal illness or critical illness. In return, the policy owner agrees to pay a stipulated amount called a premium at regular intervals Orr in lump sums. There may be designs in some countries where bills and death expenses plus catering for after funeral expenses should be included in Policy Premium. In the United States, the predominant form simply specifies a lump sum to be paid on the insured’s demise.

As with most insurance policies, life insurance is a contract between the insurer and the policy owner whereby a benefit is paid to the designated beneficiaries if an insured event occurs which is covered by the policy. To be a life policy the insured event must be based upon the lives of the people named in the policy. ADVANTAGES OF LIFE INSURANCE Most of the time, insurance advisors want to discuss term life insurance. Because it is only purchased for a set span of time, or a term, the premiums are lower. For this reason alone, many agents probably believe that these orts of temporary policies are more attractive to their clients. However, even though traditional policies may seem more expensive, it does have advantages that should be considered before taking out a long term contract like an insurance policy. For one thing, whole life coverage will cover you for your entire life as long as the policy is kept in force. The policy will not expire. Furthermore, the premium rate you are quoted at 35 will be the premium you will pay when you are 65! Unless of course, you have purchased a policy that is designed to be paid up over a period of years.

This is a great benefit. You can pay up your coverage over a period of years, usually ten or twenty, and then have the satisfaction of knowing that your life is covered forever! On the other hand, some term policies do not guarantee that rates will remain level through the whole term. To guarantee that rate, you could have to buy an extra rider, and all of a sudden, that policy is not as cheap as it looked like before. If you do not make sure the premium will remain level, and you do not buy the rider, you could find your rates increased after five years.

With a term policy, you will either have to accept the higher premium or lose the policy, with nothing to show for the years you did pay on it. Another advantage of permanent coverage is that it can actually be used as an asset. When you build up cash value, you can borrow against that value. You can even choose to cash your policy in for the value. Of course, then you could be left without life insurance, but at least you will have some cash back for the premiums you put in. If you have a permanent policy, you can even choose to sell the face value of the life insurance policy in many states.

The purchaser will continue making payments on the policy if it needs to be kept in force, but will pay a cash settlement to the insured person. For seniors on fixed incomes, RECRUITMENT DEFINATION OF RECRUITMENT According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization”. Recruitment is the activity that links the employers and the job seekers. A few definitions of recruitment are: 1. A process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment.

The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applications from which new employees are selected. 2. It is the process to discover sources of manpower to meet the requirement of staffing schedule and to employ effective PROCESS OF RECRUITMENT |The recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource department and recruitment process is the first step towards| |creating the competitive strength and the strategic advantage for the organizations.

Recruitment process involves a systematic | |procedure from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conducting the interviews and requires many resources and time. A general | |recruitment process is as follows: | |Identifying the vacancy: | |The recruitment process begins with the human resource department receiving requisitions for recruitment from any department of the | |company.

These contain: | | | |• Posts to be filled | |• Number of persons | |• Duties to be performed | |• Qualifications required | |Preparing the job description and person specification. |Locating and developing the sources of required number and type of employees (Advertising etc). | |Short-listing and identifying the prospective employee with required characteristics. | |Arranging the interviews with the selected candidates. | |Conducting the interview and decision making | | |[pic] | | | |Identify vacancy | |Prepare job description and person specification | |Advertising the vacancy | |Managing the response | |Short-listing | |Arrange interviews | |Conducting interview and decision making | |The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process i. e. the final interviews and the decision making, conveying | |the decision and the appointment formalities. | SOURCE OF RECRUITMENT | | |Every organization has the option of choosing the candidates for its recruitment processes from two kinds of sources: internal and | |external sources. The sources within the organization itself (like transfer of employees from one department to other, promotions) to | |fill a position are known as the internal sources of recruitment.

Recruitment candidates from all the other sources (like outsourcing | |agencies etc. ) are known as the external sources of recruitment. | | | | | |SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT | |[pic] | INTERNAL SOURCES | | |1.

TRANSFERS | |The employees are transferred from one department to another according to their efficiency and experience. | | | |2. PROMOTIONS | |The employees are promoted from one department to another with more benefits and greater responsibility based on efficiency and | |experience. | | | |3. UPGRADING AND DEMOTION of present employees according to their performance. | | | |4.

RETIRED AND RETRENCHED EMPLOYEES may also be recruited once again in case of shortage of qualified personnel or increase in load of| |work. Recruitment such people | | | |Save time and costs of the organizations as the people are already aware of the organizational culture and the policies and | |procedures. | | | |5. DECEASED EMPLOYEES AND DISABLED EMPLOYEES They are also done by many companies so that the members of the family do not become | |dependent on the mercy of others. | EXTERNAL SOURCES | |1. PRESS ADVERTISEMENTS | |Advertisements of the vacancy in newspapers and journals are a widely used source of recruitment. The main advantage of this method is| |that it has a wide reach. | | | |2. EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTES | |Various management institutes, engineering colleges, medical Colleges etc. re a good source of recruiting well qualified executives, | |engineers, medical staff etc. They provide facilities for campus interviews and placements. This source is known as Campus | |Recruitment. | | | |3. PLACEMENT AGENCIES | |Several private consultancy firms perform recruitment functions on behalf of client companies by charging a fee. These | | | |Agencies are particularly suitable for recruitment of executives and specialists.

It is also known as RPO (Recruitment Process | |Outsourcing) | |EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES | |Government establishes public employment exchanges throughout the country. These exchanges provide job information to job seekers and | |help employers in identifying suitable candidates. | |LABOUR CONTRACTORS | |Manual workers can be recruited through contractors who maintain close contacts with the sources of such workers. This source is used | |to recruit labour for construction jobs. | |UNSOLICITED APPLICANTS | |Many job seekers visit the office of well-known companies on their own. Such callers are considered nuisance to the daily work routine| |of the enterprise.

But can help in creating the talent pool or the database of the probable candidates for the organization. | |EMPLOYEE REFERRALS / RECOMMENDATIONS | |many organizations have structured system where the current employees of the organization can refer their friends and relatives for | |some position in their organization. Also, the office bearers of trade unions are often aware of the suitability of candidates. | |Management can inquire these leaders for suitable jobs. In some organizations these are formal agreements to give priority in | |recruitment to the candidates recommended by the trade union. |RECRUITMENT AT FACTORY GATE | |Unskilled workers may be recruited at the factory gate these may be employed whenever a permanent worker is absent. More efficient | |among these may be recruited to fill permanent vacancies. | IMPORTANCE OF RECRUITMENT |Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organization. | |Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organization. | |Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities. |Recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees. | |Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. | | | | | |Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants. | |Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave the organization only after a short period of | |time. | |Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its workforce. | | |Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates. | |Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants | ] COMPANY ORIENTATION KOTAK MAHINDRA OLD MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE LTD. • A Joint Venture between one of India’s latest Bank and one of the world’s largest financial company. • One of the leading private insurance companies in India today. • Well-trained and Qualified Life Advisors. • Complete, Innovative product range. • Superior customized service. Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance Ltd. is a joint venture between Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd. (KMBL), and Old Mutual plc.

At Kotak Life Insurance, we aim to help customers take important financial decisions at every stage in life by offering them a wide range of innovative life insurance products, to make them financially independent KOTAK MAHINDRA LOGO [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] HERE THIS SINGE IS RELATED TO INFINITE. IT MEANS THAT COMPANY IS NOT ENDED IT IS RUNING ON COUNTINOUSLY IN WHOLE LIVE IN SHORT KOTAK IS NEVER ENDED. [pic]HERE KOTAK IS RELATED TO COMPANY OWNER NAME THAT IS UDAY KOTAK. [pic] HERE THIS LOGO SAYS THAT KOTAK LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY JOINT VENTURE WITH OLD MUTUAL PLC. COMPANY. KOTAK MAHINDRA GROUP • First NBFC to become a Bank • Complete Range of Financial Service • AAA credit rating • AUM: Rs. 14,500 crores • Network of Rs. 1800 crores • 4,400 employees OLD MUTUAL PLC • Old Mutual plc.

Is a world-class international financial services company, with the operations in life insurance, asset management and banking. It is one of the big players in the U. S. , U. K. and the African Continent. • Over 150 Years of experience in Life Insurance. • One of the best ‘returns’ amongst insurers worldwide. • Base of over 3. 8 million Life assurance policyholders. • A FTSE 100 Financial services group, and ranks as Fortune Global 500 Company. • 3rd largest insurer listed on London Stock Exchange. • The Old Mutual group manages in excess of $235 billion in funds i. e. , a total asset base of more than Rs. 11 Lakh crore. • South Africa’s largest life insurance, banking & mutual funds company • AUM: US $ 306 billion Approach To Partnership o Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd Kotak Mahindra Capital Company Ltd o Kotak’s International Business o Kotak Mahindra Prime Ltd o Kotak Securities Ltd o Kotak Mahindra Asset Management Company Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd. The Kotak Mahindra Group’s flagship company, Kotak Mahindra Finance Ltd which was established in 1985, was converted into a bank – Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd in March 2003 becoming the first Indian company to convert into a Bank. It’s banking operations offers a central platform for customer relationships across the group’s various businesses. The bank has a presence in the Commercial Vehicles, Retail Finance, Corporate Banking, Treasury and Housing Finance. Kotak Mahindra Capital Company Ltd.

Kotak Investment Banking* (KIB) is India’s premier Investment Bank Kotak Investment Banking (KIB) and Kotak Institutional Equities represent the securities business of the Kotak Mahindra Group (KI), Kotak Investment Bank is a full service Investment Bank bringing to its clients the global reach and the local knowledge and skills of Kotak Mahindra. As a full service Investment Bank, Kotak Investment Banking’s core business areas include Equity Issuances, Mergers & Acquisitions, Advisory Services and Fixed Income Securities and Principal Business. Its strength lies in understanding the clients’ businesses backed by a strong research teamand an extensive distribution network, which spans a wide variety of investors across the country. It is also the first Indian Investment Bank to be registered with the Securities & Futures Authority in the UK (through our wholly owned subsidiary) and the National Association of Securities and Dealers in the USA.

Its the first Indian Investment Bank to be appointed by the Government of India as a Co-lead Manager in their international divestment of Gas Authority of India Ltd through a GDR offering. Kotak Investment Bank today well positioned in an increasing globalised environment to provide full service to its clients based either in India or overseas Kotak’s International Business With a presence outside India since 1994, the international subsidiaries of Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd. operating through offices in London, New York, Dubai, San Francisco, Singapore and Mauritius specialize in providing services to specialist overseas investors seeking to invest into India. Investors can access the asset management capabilities of the international subsidiaries through funds domiciled outside India.

They offer asset management services to institutions and high net worth individuals based outside India through a range of offshore Indian funds, as well as through specific advisory and discretionary investment management mandates for institutional investors. The offerings are differentiated India investment solutions that span all major asset classes including listed equity, private equity and real estate. The subsidiaries also lead manage and underwrite international issuances of securities. With its commendable track record, large presence on the ground and a team of dedicated staff in India, Kotak’s international arm is suitably positioned for managing assets in the Indian Capital markets.

The international arm of Kotak operates through the below three subsidiaries: • Kotak Mahindra (UK) Limited (KMUK) • Kotak Mahindra Inc. (KM Inc) • Kotak Mahindra International Limited (KMIL) Kotak Mahindra Prime Ltd. Formed to finance all passenger vehicles. The company is dedicated to financing and supporting automotive and automotive related manufacturers, dealers and retail customers. The Company offers car financing in the form of loans for the entire range of passenger cars and multi utility vehicles. The Company also offers Inventory funding to car dealers and has entered into strategic arrangement with various car manufacturers in India for being their preferred financier.

As on March 31, 2006, KMP has a retail distribution network comprising of 52 branches (including representative offices) covering about 100 locations in 16 states in the country and has a wide network of Direct Marketing Associates, brokers and agencies supporting the distribution network and servicing around 139202 contracts. Kotak Mahindra Prime Limited (KMPL) is a 100% subsidiary of Kotak Mahindra Group (Kotak Group ) Kotak Securities Kotak Securities Ltd. , subsidiary of Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd. , is one of India’s largest brokerage and distribution house with a market share of around 8. 5 % as on 31st March. Kotak Securities Ltd. has been the largest in IPO distribution.

Kotak Securities has been graced with various accolades the latest being Finance Asia Award (2006) – Best Broker In India and Euro money Award (2006) – Best Provider of Portfolio Management: Equities Kotak Securities Ltd is also a depository participant with National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL) and Central Depository Services Limited (CDSL), providing dual benefit services wherein the investors can use the brokerage services of the company for executing the transactions and the depository services for settling them. Kotak Securities has 195 branches servicing more than 2,20,000 customers and a coverage of 231 Cities. Kotaksecurities. om, the online division of Kotak Securities Limited offers Internet Broking services and also online IPO and Mutual Fund Investments. Kotak Securities Limited manages assets over 2500 crores of Assets Under Management (AUM) . The portfolio Management Services provides top class service, catering to the high end of the market. Portfolio Management from Kotak Securities comes as an answer to those who would like to grow exponentially on the crest of the stock market, with the backing of an expert. Kotak Mahindra Asset Management Company wholly owned subsidiary of Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd. Kotak Mahindra Mutual Fund launched its Schemes in December 1998 and today manages over Rs. 13,635. 3 crores of assets from close to 4,34,622 investors in various schemes [pic][pic] 1. Kotak Mahindra Capital Company (KMCC) Joint Venture Between:- – Kotak Mahindra Bank- 75% – Goldman Sachs- 25% (Strategic Alliance in 1992 & JV Company in 1995) 2. Kotak Mahindra Primus Ltd. (KMPL) Joint Venture Between:- – Kotak Mahindra Bank- 60% – Ford Credit International- 40% (JV Company formed in 1996) 3. Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance Ltd. Joint Venture Between:- – Kotak Mahindra Bank- 74% – Old Mutual Plc. – 26% (JV Company formed 2000) Vision of kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance Ltd. • Global Indian Financial Services Brand Indian understanding : Global standards of Delivery Most Preferred Employer/ Business Partner Home for Bright minds and entrepreneurial skills • Most Trusted Financial Services Company High Standard of Compliance/ Corporate Governance. • Value & not just size – Business Driven with both value and Growth in mind. WHERE IS THE COMPANY STAND TODAY ? • Global expertise in Product Development & Training • Strong suite of Investment cum insurance products • 5th Most Recalled Brand • Value Focused Growth: 6th in size, 2nd in Case size. • Better than average Life Advisor Productivity. THE OUTLOOK MONEY RANKING Kotak Life Insurance has constantly strived to deliver the best to its customers by providing innovative & pragmatic solutions.

We are happy that Outlook Money, India’s no. 1 personal finance magazine, recently recognized our prowess in this field. In its 15th Dec’07 issue, Outlook Money has rated three of our Unit Linked Insurance Plans among the best in the industry. We feel vindicated in our efforts and consider it as another leaf in our efforts and consider it as another leaf in our book of success. We will be most happy to assist you in your search of the right Unit Linked Insurance Plan. Kotak PLATINUM ADVANTAGE Ranked as the No. 1 ULIP The kotak Platinum Advantage Plan, a unique blend of safety and returns is a plan that offers you great choice and tremendous flexibility.

It offers capital protection, embedded investment advice, life cover, flexibility of adjusting risk profile and aggressive market linked growth options-all under one roof. HEADSTART CHILD PLANS Future Protect. Assure Wealth Featured among best child ULIP’s Keeping your child a step ahead of life, is now simple with the Kotak Headstart Future Protect. This is an investment and protection package that is specially designed to help you pan wisely for a financially secure and comfortable tomorrow for your children, no matter what the uncertainty of life. Secure your child’s future with the Kotak Headstart Future Protect Plan today. Kotak PREFERRED TERM PLAN Comes with the Outlook Money stamp of assurance

Kotak Preferred Term Plan is one of the lowest cost term plans in the industry. Here, you have the flexibility to choose between a regular premium payment option or a single premium payment option. Along with competitive returns and transparency. Kotak Preferred Plan could be the best option for your protection needs. Ensure a safe future for your family. Get the Kotak Preferred Term Plan advantage, today. INSURANCE DEFINATION OF INSURANCE :- in its basic form is defined as “ A contract between two parties whereby one party called Insurance insurer undertakes in exchange for a fixed sum called premiums, to pay the other party called insured a fixed amount of money on the happening of a certain event. In simple terms it is a contract between the person who buys Insurance and an Insurance company who sold the Policy. By entering into contract the Insurance Company agrees to pay the Policy holder or his family members a predetermined sum of money in case of any unfortunate event for a predetermined fixed sum payable which is in normal term called Insurance Premiums. Insurance is basically a protection against a financial loss which can arise on the happening of an unexpected event. Insurance companies collect premiums to provide for this protection. By paying a very small sum of money a person can safeguard himself and his family financially from an unfortunate event.

For Example if a person buys a Life Insurance Policy by paying a premium to the Insurance company , the family members of insured person receive a fixed compensation in case of any unfortunate event like death. There are different kinds of Insurance Products available such as Life Insurance, Vehicle Insurance, Home Insurance, Travel Insurance, Health or Mediclaim Insurance etc. Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of potential financial loss. Insurance is defined as the equitable transfer of the risk of a potential loss, from one entity to another, in exchange for a premium and duty of care. PRINCIPALS OF INSURANCE :- The timing or occurrence of the loss must be uncertain.

The rate of losses must be relatively predictable: In order to set premiums (prices) insurers must be able to estimate them accurately. If the coverage is unique, the insured will pay a correspondingly higher premium. Lloyd’s of London often accepts unique coverage’s. (e. g. , the insuring of Tina Turner’s legs and Jennifer Lopez’s bum) The losses must be predictable on a macro level: Insurers need to know how much they would be required to pay when the insured-for event occurs. Most types of insurance have maximum levels of payouts, but not all do, notably health insurance. The loss must be significant: The legal principle of De minimis dictates that trivial matters are not covered.

Furthermore, rational insurance uses existing insurance when the transaction costs dictate that filing a claim is not rational. The loss must not be catastrophic: If the insurer is insolvent, it will be unable to pay the insured. In the United States, there is a system of Guaranty Funds run at the state level to reimburse insured people whose insurance companies have become insolvent. This program is run by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC). To avoid catastrophic depletion of their own capital, insurers almost universally purchase reinsurance to protect them against excessively large accumulations of risk in a single area, and to protect them against large-scale catastrophes. INDEMNIFICATION :-

An entity seeking to transfer risk (an individual, corporation, or association of any type) becomes the ‘insured’ party once risk is assumed by an ‘insurer’, the insuring party, by means of a contract, defined as an insurance ‘policy’. This legal contract sets out terms and conditions specifying the amount of coverage (compensation) to be rendered to the insured, by the insurer upon assumption of risk, in the event of a loss, and all the specific perils covered against (indemnified), for the term of the contract. When insured parties experience a loss for a specified peril, the coverage entitles the policyholder to make a ‘claim’ against the insurer for the amount of loss as specified by the policy contract.

The fee paid by the insured to the insurer for assuming the risk is called the ‘premium’. Insurance premiums from many clients are used to fund accounts set aside for later payment of claims – in theory for a relatively few claimants – and for overhead costs. So long as an insurer maintains adequate funds set aside for anticipated losses, the remaining margin becomes their profit. ORIGINE OF INSURANCE:- Almost 4,500 years ago, in the ancient land of Babylonia, traders used to bear risk of the caravan trade by giving loans that had to be later repaid with interest when the goods arrived safely. In 2100 BC, the Code of Hammurabi granted legal status to the practice. That, perhaps, was how insurance made its beginning.

Life insurance had its origins in ancient Rome, where citizens formed burial clubs that would meet the funeral expenses of its members as well as help survivors by making some payments. As European civilization progressed, its social institutions and welfare practices also got more and more refined. With the discovery of new lands, sea routes and the consequent growth in trade, medieval guilds took it upon themselves to protect their member traders from loss on account of fire, shipwrecks and the like. Since most of the trade took place by sea, there was also the fear of pirates. So these guilds even offered ransom for members held captive by pirates. Burial expenses and support in times of sickness and poverty were other services offered.

Essentially, all these revolved around the concept of insurance or risk coverage. That’s how old these concepts are, really. In 1347, in Genoa, European maritime nations entered into the earliest known insurance contract and decided to accept marine insurance as a practice. The first step… Insurance as we know it today owes its existence to 17th century England. In fact, it began taking shape in 1688 at a rather interesting place called Lloyd’s Coffee House in London, where merchants, ship-owners and underwriters met to discuss and transact business. By the end of the 18th century, Lloyd’s had brewed enough business to become one of the first modern insurance companies. Insurance and Myth… Back to the 17th century.

In 1693, astronomer Edmond Halley constructed the first mortality table to provide a link between the life insurance premium and the average life spans based on statistical laws of mortality and compound interest. In 1756, Joseph Dodson reworked the table, linking premium rate to age. Enter companies… The first stock companies to get into the business of insurance were chartered in England in 1720. The year 1735 saw the birth of the first insurance company in the American colonies in Charleston, SC. In 1759, the Presbyterian Synod of Philadelphia sponsored the first life insurance corporation in America for the benefit of ministers and their dependents.

However, it was after 1840 that life insurance really took off in a big way. The trigger: reducing opposition from religious groups. The growing years… The 19th century saw huge developments in the field of insurance, with newer products being devised to meet the growing needs of urbanization and industrialization. In 1835, the infamous New York fire drew people’s attention to the need to provide for sudden and large losses. Two years later, Massachusetts became the first state to require companies by law to maintain such reserves. The great Chicago fire of 1871 further emphasized how fires can cause huge losses in densely populated modern cities.

The practice of reinsurance, wherein the risks are spread among several companies, was devised specifically for such situations. There were more offshoots of the process of industrialization. In 1897, the British government passed the Workmen’s Compensation Act, which made it mandatory for a company to insure its employees against industrial accidents. With the advent of the automobile, public liability insurance, which first made its appearance in the 1880s, gained importance and acceptance? In the 19th century, many societies were founded to insure the life and health of their members, while fraternal orders provided low-cost, members-only insurance. Even today, such fraternal orders continue to provide insurance coverage to members as do most labour organizations.

Many employers sponsor group insurance policies for their employees, providing not just life insurance, but sickness and accident benefits and old-age pensions. Employees contribute a certain percentage of the premium for these policies. In India… Insurance in India can be traced back to the Vedas. For instance, yogakshema, the name of Life Insurance Corporation of India’s corporate headquarters, is derived from the Rig Veda. The term suggests that a form of “community insurance” was prevalent around 1000 BC and practised by the Aryans. Burial societies of the kind found in ancient Rome were formed in the Buddhist period to help families build houses, protect widows and children.

Bombay Mutual Assurance Society, the first Indian life assurance society, was formed in 1870. Other companies like Oriental, Bharat and Empire of India were also set up in the 1870-90s. It was during the swadeshi movement in the early 20th century that insurance witnessed a big boom in India with several more companies being set up. As these companies grew, the government began to exercise control on them. The Insurance Act was passed in 1912, followed by a detailed and amended Insurance Act of 1938 that looked into investments, expenditure and management of these companies’ funds. By the mid-1950s, there were around 170 insurance companies and 80 provident fund societies in the country’s life insurance scene.

However, in the absence of regulatory systems, scams and irregularities were almost a way of life at most of these companies. As a result, the government decided nationalizes the life assurance business in India. The Life Insurance Corporation of India was set up in 1956 to take over around 250 life companies. For years thereafter, insurance remained a monopoly of the public sector. It was only after seven years of deliberation and debate – after the RN Malhotra Committee report of 1994 became the first serious document calling for the re-opening up of the insurance sector to private players — that the sector was finally opened up to private players in 2001.

The Insurance Regulatory & Development Authority, an autonomous insurance regulator set up in 2000, has extensive powers to oversee the insurance business and regulate in a manner that will safeguard the interests of the insured. KINDS OF INSURANCE :- LIFE INSURANCE :- Life Insurance is insurance for you and your family’s peace of mind. Life insurance is a policy that people buy from a life insurance company, which can be the basis of protection and financial stability after one’s death. Its function is to help beneficiaries financially after the owner of the policy dies. It can also be a form of savings in the long run if you purchase a plan, which offers the option of contributing regularly.

Additionally, a little known function of life insurance is that it can be tied in with a person’s pension plan. A person can make contributions to a pension that is funded by a life insurance company. These are considered private pension arrangements. In addition, you should also make a list of what you feel needs to be protected in your family’s way of life. With a life insurance policy in place, you can: • Provide security for your family • Protect your home mortgage • Take care of your estate planning needs • Look at other retirement savings/income vehicles GENERAL INSURANCE :- Insurance other than ‘Life Insurance’ falls under the category of General Insurance.

General Insurance comprises of insurance of property against fire, burglary etc, personal insurance such as Accident and Health Insurance, and liability insurance which covers legal liabilities. There are also other covers such as Errors and Omissions insurance for professionals, credit insurance etc. Non-life insurance companies have products that cover property against Fire and allied perils, flood storm and inundation, earthquake and so on. There are products that cover property against burglary, theft etc. The non-life companies also offer policies covering machinery against breakdown; there are policies that cover the hull of ships and so on. A Marine Cargo policy covers goods in transit including by sea, air and road.

Further, insurance of motor vehicles against damages and theft forms a major chunk of non-life insurance business. In respect of insurance of property, it is important that the cover is taken for the actual value of the property to avoid being imposed a penalty should there be a claim. Where a property is undervalued for the purposes of insurance, the insured will have to bear a ratable proportion of the loss. For instance if the value of a property is Rs. 100 and it is insured for Rs. 50/-, in the event of a loss to the extent of say Rs. 50/-, the maximum claim amount payable would be Rs. 25/- (50% of the loss being borne by the insured for underinsuring the property by 50%).

This concept is quite often not understood by most insured. Personal insurance covers include policies for Accident, Health etc. Products offering Personal Accident cover are benefit policies. Health insurance covers offered by non-life insurers are mainly hospitalization covers either on reimbursement or cashless basis. The cashless service is offered through Third Party Administrators who have arrangements with various service providers, i. e. , hospitals. The Third Party Administrators also provide service for reimbursement claims. Sometimes the insurers themselves process reimbursement claims. Accident and health insurance policies are available for individuals as well as groups.

A group could be a group of employees of an organization or holders of credit cards or deposit holders in a bank etc. Normally when a group is covered, insurers offer group discounts. Liability insurance covers such as Motor Third Party Liability Insurance, Workmen’s Compensation Policy etc offer cover against legal liabilities that may arise under the respective statutes— Motor Vehicles Act, The Workmen’s Compensation Act etc. Some of the covers such as the foregoing (Motor Third Party and Workmen’s Compensation policy) are compulsory by statute. Liability Insurance not compulsory by statute is also gaining popularity these days. Many industries insure against Public liability. There are liability covers available for Products as well.

There are general insurance products that are in the nature of package policies offering a combination of the covers mentioned above. For instance, there are package policies available for householders, shopkeepers and also for professionals such as doctors, chartered accountants etc. Apart from offering standard covers, insurers also offer customized or tailor-made ones. Suitable general Insurance covers are necessary for every family. It is important to protect one’s property, which one might have acquired from one’s hard earned income. A loss or damage to one’s property can leave one shattered. Losses created by catastrophes such as the tsunami, earthquakes, cyclones etc have left many homeless and penniless.

Such losses can be devastating but insurance could help mitigate them. Property can be covered, so also the people against Personal Accident. A Health Insurance policy can provide financial relief to a person undergoing medical treatment whether due to a disease or an injury. Industries also need to protect themselves by obtaining insurance covers to protect their building, machinery, stocks etc. They need to cover their liabilities as well. Financiers insist on insurance. So, most industries or businesses that are financed by banks and other institutions do obtain covers. But are they obtaining the right covers? And are they insuring adequately are questions that need to be given some thought.

Also organizations or industries that are self-financed should ensure that they are protected by insurance. Most general insurance covers are annual contracts. However, there are few products that are long-term. [pic] Life Insurance is the only Instrument that takes care of all these three Probabilities and two Priorities. Dying too Soon • Everyone KNOWS about it but NO one FEELS about it • Today’s stressful and hectic lifestyle increases its uncertainty • Only 3 out of 4 people reach the age of 60 • Our family will need our Income to maintain the same lifestyle. • Don’t we want them to be happy, not only as long as WE live, but as long as THEY live? [pic] Dying too soon.

Living too Long • Only 3 Out of 10 People enjoy retirement; the others have to suffer it. • Don’t we want to be financially independent even after we stop working? • Look at the – Decreasing rupees value and increasing cost of living – Continuously falling interest rates – Rising medical costs Living too Long Living Death • 6 out of 10 Attentions: from a life –threatening illness before they reach the age of 60. • Critical illness or disability can shatter our dreams for our loved ones • Not only we suffer, but we also have to watch our family suffer. • When the unfortunate event occurs, our income should not stop. Living Death

Children’s Bright Future • Who knows better than you that education and marriage require a lot of money? • There are certain times in our life when we would want your love to be available to your child in the form of hard cash • This is one area where you don’t want to compromise, isn’t it? • You are the source of your children’s happiness-protect it. Children Bright Future Asset and wealth Creation Don’t you want? • A house of your own? • A Comfortable bank balance? • All of life’s comforts, be it a car or a vacation? Asset and Wealth Creation ROLE OF LIFE INSURANCE Role 1: Life insurance as “Investment” Insurance is an attractive option for investment.

While most people recognize the risk hedging and tax saving potential of insurance, many are not aware of its advantages as an investment option as well. Insurance products yield more compared to regular investment options, and this is besides the added incentives (bonuses) offered by insurers. One cannot compare an insurance product with other investment schemes for the simple reason that it offers financial protection from risks, something that is missing in non-insurance products. In fact, the premium one pay for an insurance policy is an investment against risk. Thus, before comparing with other schemes, one must accept that a part of the total amount invested in life insurance goes towards providing for the risk cover, while the rest is used for savings.

In life insurance, unlike non-life products, you get maturity benefits on survival at the end of the term. In other words, if you take a life insurance policy for 20 years and survive the term, the amount invested as premium in the policy will come back to you with added returns. In the unfortunate event of death within the tenure of the policy, the family of the deceased will receive the sum assured. Now, let us compare insurance as an investment options. If you invest Rs 10,000 in PPF, your money grows to Rs 10,950 at 9. 5 %interest over a year. But in this case, the access to your funds will be limited. One can withdraw 50 % of the initial deposit only after 4 years.

The same amount of Rs 10,000 can give you an insurance cover of up to approximately Rs 5-12 lakh (depending upon the plan, age and medical condition of the life insured, etc) and this amount can become immediately available to the nominee of the policyholder on death. Thus insurance is a unique investment avenue that delivers sound returns in addition to protection. Role 2: Life insurance as “Risk cover” First and foremost, insurance is about risk cover and protection – financial protection, to be more precise – to help outlast life’s unpredictable losses. Designed to safeguard against losses suffered on account of any unforeseen event, insurance provides you with that unique sense of security that no other form of investment provides. By buying life insurance, you buy peace of mind and are prepared to face any financial demand that would hit the family in case of an untimely demise.

To provide such protection, insurance firms collect contributions from many people who face the same risk. A loss claim is paid out of the total premium collected by the insurance companies, who act as trustees to the mournies. Role 3: Life insurance as “Tax saver” Section 10(10 D) of Income Tax Act, 1961 would apply. Under this, the amount of maturity value is paid to the policyholder, which is totally tax fee. Section 80C is applicable. Under this a person can invest maximum of Rs. 1 lack. Out of his annual income for which no tax is levied. A survey was conducted on 100 customers of Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance and asked about their preferred insurance benefit.

The survey results are compiled as below: IRDA :- (INDIAN REGULATORY AND DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY) A strong Regulator that Ensures the Safety of Money. As per the section 4 of IRDA Act’ 1999, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA, which was constitute by an act of parliament) specify the composition of Authority The Authority is a ten member team consisting of (a)    A Chairman; (b)    Five whole-time members; (c)    Four part-time members, M I S S I O N:- To protect the interests of the policyholders, to regulate, promote and ensure orderly growth of the insurance industry and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

At present 19 companies working in this sector that is NAME OF LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY ? Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance Limited ? HDFC Standard Life Insurance Company Ltd. ? Max New York Life Insurance Co. Ltd. ? ICICI Prudential Life Insurance Company Ltd. ? Birla Sun Life Insurance Company Ltd. ? Tata AIG Life Insurance Company Ltd. ? SBI Life Insurance Company Limited . ? ING Vysya Life Insurance Company Private Limited ? Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Company Limited ? MetLife India Insurance Company Ltd. ? Future Generali India Life Insurance Company Limited ? IDBI Fortis Life Insurance Company Ltd. ? AMP Sanmar Life Insurance Company Limited. Sahara India Insurance Company Ltd. ? Aviva Life Insurance Co. India Pvt. Ltd. ? Shriram Life Insurance Company Ltd. ? Aegon Religare Life Insurance Company Ltd. ? DLF Pramerica Life Insurance Company Ltd. GENERAL INSURANCE ? Royal Sundaram Alliance Insurance Company Limited ? Reliance General Insurance Company Limited. ? IFFCO Tokio General Insurance Co. Ltd ? TATA AIG General Insurance Company Ltd. ? Bajaj Allianz General Insurance Company Limited ? ICICI Lombard General Insurance Company Limited ? Apollo DKV Insurance Company Limited ? Future Generali India Insurance Company Limited ? Universal Sompo General Insurance Company Ltd. ? Export Credit Guarantee Corporation Ltd. HDFC-Chubb General Insurance Co. Ltd. ? Bharti Axa General Insurance Company Ltd Kotak Life Insurance Build-Up of Business DIFFERENT PRODUCTS OF KOTAK LIFE INSURANCE ? Kotak Smart Advantage ? Kotak Eternal Life Plans ? Kotak Premium Advantage Plans ? Kotak Headstart Child Plans ? Kotak Sukhi Jeevan Plans ? Kotak Privileged Assurance Plan ? Kotak Term/ Preferred Term Plan ? Kotak Money back Plan ? Kotak Child Advantage Plan ? Kotak Endowment Plan ? Kotak Capital Multiplier Plan ? Kotak Retirement Income Plan ( Unit-Linked) ? Kotak Safe Investment Plan 2 ? Kotak Flexi Plan ? Kotak Easy Growth Plan ? Kotak Premium Return Plan ? Riders ? Employee Benefits Kotak Term Grouplan ? Kotak Credit-Term Grouplan ? Kotak Complete Cover Grouplan ? Kotak Gratuity Grouplan ? Keyman Insurance Plan ? Kotak Gramin Bima Yojana WHAT ARE UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE PLANS? Unit-linked insurance plans, ULIPs, are distinct from the more familiar ‘with profits’ policies sold for decades by the Life Insurance Corporation. ‘With profits’ policies are called so because investment gains (profits) are distributed to policyholders in the form of a bonus announced every year. ULIPs also serve the same function of providing insurance protection against death and provision of long-term savings, but they are structured differently.

In ‘with profits’ policies, the insurance company credits the premium to a common pool called the ‘life fund,’ after setting aside funds for the risk premium on life insurance and management expenses. Every year, the insurer calculates how much has to be paid to settle death and maturity claims. The surplus in the life fund left after meeting these liabilities is credited to policyholders’ accounts in the form of a bonus. In a ULIP too, the insurer deducts charges towards life insurance (mortality charges), administration charges and fund management charges. The rest of the premium is used to invest in a fund that invests money in stocks or bonds.

The number of units represents the policyholder’s share in the fund. The value of the unit is determined by the total value of all the investments made by the fund divided by the number of units. If the insurance company offers a range of funds, the insured can direct the company to invest in the fund of his choice. Insurers usually offer three choices — an equity (growth) fund, balanced fund and a fund, which invests in bonds. In both ‘with profits’ policies as well as unit-linked policies, a large part of the first year premium goes towards paying the agents’ commissions. WHY DO INSURERS PREFER ULIPS Insurers love ULIPs for several reasons.

Most important of all, insurers can sell these policies with less capital of their own than what would be required if they sold traditional policies. In traditional ‘with profits’ policies, the insurance company bears the investment risk to the extent of the assured amount. In ULIPs, the policyholder bears most of the investment risk. Since ULIPs are devised to mobilize savings, they give insurance companies an opportunity to get a large chunk of the asset management business, which has been traditionally dominated by mutual funds. KOTAK SMART ADVANTAGE Make every rupee work for your happiness In this policy, the investment risk in the investment portfolio is borne by the policyholder. Why should we invest in kotak smart advantage? Every step in our life brings with it newel earnings.

We are determined to make the best of it, so that we can look forward to a great future. How we shape our tomorrow depends greatly on how we build on our today. Kotak Life Insurance introduces Kotak Smart Advantage, a great combination of investment with insurance, to put our savings to work today. It is a market linked plan with 100% premium allocations helping us to accumulate wealth systematically, over the long-term. Key Highlights • Guaranteed returns of up to 275% of your first year premium at maturity. • Assured bonus additions at regular intervals during the policy term to enhance your fund value. • 100% allocation of your premiums from second year onwards to maximize your earning potential. A unique3 fund offering you the maximum Opportunity for growth. • Option to maximize protection your loved ones. • Tex Benefits to avail under 80 C and section 10 (10D) of the Income Tax Act, 1961. Kotak Smart Advantage- • Guaranteed returns of up to 275% of your first year premium at maturity. • Assured bonus additions at regular intervals during the policy term to enhance your fund value. • 100%1 allocation of your premiums from second year onwards. • Unique fund offering you the maximum opportunity for growth and choice for your investment needs. • Maximum protection for your loved ones to . choose from Kotak Smart Advantage Make every rupee work for your happiness

Every step in your life brings with it new learning’s. You are determined to make the best of it, so that you can look forward to a great future. How you shape your tomorrow depends greatly on how you build on your today. Kotak Life Insurance introduces Kotak Smart Advantage offering you a smart solution to put your savings to work today for a brighter tomorrow. It is a market linked plan with 100%1 premium allocations helping you accumulate wealth systematically, over the long-term. Kotak Smart Advantage is a great combination of investment with insurance Designed to enable you to make the best use of your hard-earned money that puts you right ahead. Note

In this policy, the investment risk in the investment portfolio is borne by the policyholder. Zindagi se ek kadam aagey How does this plan work? Kotak Smart Advantage optimizes the return on your premiums paid through a smart mix of assured additions and 100%1 premium allocation. Your first year’s premium contributes towards guaranteeing you an Assured Addition Advantage that boosts your fund value at regular intervals throughout the term of the policy. The longer your premium paying term, the higher will be the value of the advantage. The Assured Addition Advantage is a powerful combination of two benefits: 1. Fixed Advantage The Fixed Advantage benefit is an assured value guaranteed at the end of your premium payment term.

This benefit is calculated as a percentage of your first year premium depending on the premium payment term chosen, provided your policy is in force and all premiums are fully paid up to date. Premium Payment Term 100% 110% 135% 175% 225% 275% 2. Dynamic Advantage The Dynamic Advantage benefit is an assured bonus addition credited to your fund value at the end of every 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th and 30th policy year. This benefit will be calculated as a percentage of the average value of funds in the three years preceding the benefit allocation, provided your policy is in force and all premiums are fully paid up to date. At the end of Policy Year 1. 10% 1. 35% 1. 75% 2. 25% 2. 75%

The Assured Addition Advantage lets you enjoy the benefits of a fixed assurance and a dynamic benefit directly linked to your fund value, to help you tread comfortably and swiftly towards your goals. Further, the plan makes your money work smarter for you through 100%1 premium allocation in each policy year from second year onwards, in the funds of your choice. On maturity of your policy, you will receive the Fund Value and the Fixed Advantage benefit, provided your premiums are always fully paid up to date. The Dynamic Advantage benefit would have already been credited in the Fund Value at the specified intervals to accumulate more for you at the end. Please Note: Assured Addition Advantage benefit does not apply to premiums paid towards top-ups. What can you gain by investing in Kotak Smart Advantage? Smarter Avenues for Growth

Smart investing is based on the fundamental idea of regular savings and the power of compounding, which is a great way to multiply your money. It makes small savings transform into jackpots if planned with a long-term vision and right investment fund options. Kotak Smart Advantage, with its power-packed and well-defined fund options, gives you unmatched benefits to maximize your earnings potential. Each of these funds is carefully crafted to suit your individual long-term needs. Investment Option Objective Risk-Return Profile Equity Debt Opportunities Fund Aims to maximize opportunity for long-term capital growth by holding significant portions in a diversified and flexible mix of large/medium sized stocks.

Aggressive 75% to 100%, 0% to 25% Dynamic Floor Fund Aims to provide inflation-beating growth over medium to long-term through exposure to largesized company stocks, whilst shielding the capital invested against short-term market volatility. Cautious 0% to 75%, 25% to 100%Dynamic Bond Fund Aims to preserve capital and minimize downside risks by holding investments in debt and government instruments. Conservative – 100% Not more than 40% of the allocated premiums to this fund will be invested in money market instruments. You can distribute your investments across one or more funds based on your needs and goals, keeping in mind your time horizon and risk appetite.

You also have the convenience of switching your monies between funds to balance your needs and risk appetite at different stages of life. • Smarter Financial Protection for your loved ones Kotak Smart Advantage allows you to shoulder all your responsibilities to the fullest. In the unfortunate event of loss of life, your beneficiary will receive a life cover3 benefit equal to the higher of: Basic Sum Assured; OR Fund Value plus the Fixed Advantage benefit. You have the flexibility to choose any multiple of your first year premium as the Basic Sum Assured according to your life stage needs, subject to underwriting conditions. • Smarter Savings to avail Tax Benefits

You can avail of tax benefits under Section 80C and Section 10 (10D) of Income Tax Act, 1961. Tax benefits are subject to change in the tax laws. You are advised to consult your Tax Advisor for details. 3. Enhancing Your Options You can further add value to your plan by opting for these additional features: • Premium Payment Options It is important that your investments are spread out systematically over longer Periods. This makes them affordable and you benefit from the power of Compounding that generates “real” returns by outpacing the cost of living. Kotak Smart Advantage helps you do just that by allowing you to decide the term over which you want to pay the premium. You have an option of 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 years.

Further, you also have the flexibility to pay premiums at intervals that suit you – annually, half-yearly, quarterly or monthly*. You may change the payment Mode on policy anniversaries. through ECS or SI only. 4 You can invest your surplus funds at any time as Top-ups, thus adding to your savings potential. • Switching between the funds Switch or change in future premium allocation between fund options as per your needs and investment objectives to maximize your returns. • Partial Withdrawals 5 Be able to meet any sudden or unforeseen expenses, from year 4 onwards by Withdrawing up to 10% of the fund value in any policy year. For any withdrawals in excess of this limit, the Fixed Advantage Benefit2 will be revised. Automatic Cover Maintenance 6 Enables your insurance cover to remain intact, whilst your fund balance allows it, should you miss your premium payments or stop them all together. The Assured Addition Advantage2 is revised in the Automatic Cover Maintenance mode. • Settlement Options7 (Available at maturity or Death, as applicable) Provides flexibility to receive your policy benefits in the form of: • A lump sum payment; OR • Equal installments over a maximum period of five years • Free Look Period Offers the option of returning your policy document within 15 days from the date of receipt of the policy if you are not satisfied with the plan. The mount refunded would be the premium paid after adjustments for expenses for medical examination, stamp duty and proportionate risk premium for the period of cover. 5. Eligibility – A Ready Reckoner This simple eligibility table will help you structure the plan as per your requirement. Entry Age Min – 0 years Max – 65 years Maturity Age Min – 18 years Max – 75 years Policy Term Regular – 10 / 15 / 20 / 25 / 30 years For Minors, minimum term – 10 years or 18 less entry age at last birthday, whichever is higher, rounded to the next higher policy term available. Premium Payment Term (PPT) Regular – Full Policy Term Limited Premium Payment – 3 or 5 years (applicable Only with policy terms of 10 / 15 / 20 years)

Minimum Premium Regular PPT – Rs. 10, 000 p. a. Limited PPT – Rs. 36,000 p. a. Basic Sum Assured Min – 0. 5 x Policy Term x Annual premium Max – Any multiple of premium, subject to Underwriting 6. Plan Snapshot 25-year-old Dinesh realizes the benefits of astute financial planning and wants to save for the long term in a systematic way. He is looking for a plan that gives him the comfort that his savings are being put to work from day one and optimizes his growth potential in the long run. Dinesh has found the solution to his needs in Kotak Smart Advantage. Given below is an illustration of the benefits payable to him for an annual premium of Rs. 0,000 for a 30 year term with a guaranteed basic sum assured of Rs. 600,000: Charges • Premium Allocation Charge The first year premium contributes towards guaranteeing you with the Assured Addition Advantage and is not allocated to the investment funds. From year 2 onwards, an allocation charge as a percentage of the premium received is levied. The net premiums will be then allocated at the NAV8 prevailing on the date of receipt of the premiums. The premium allocation charge as a basis of the premium received is shown below: Annual Premium (Rs. ) 2-5 2% Nil 6-10 1% Nil 11+ Nil Nil The allocation charge for each Top-up will be 1% of the Top-up premium. • Fund Management Charge

To manage your money efficiently, an annual charge is levied as a percentage of the fu

Tourism and the Environment

Assignment 4: Tourism and the Environment Analysis of Ecotourism in Rathdowney, Queensland, Australia By: Angie Haves December 14, 2009 Introduction The effect of global warming is becoming ever more evident, well-known and of increasing concern as research is conducted on an ongoing basis and the results of this research are communicated widely through the media and print publications. Scientists believe that climate change is largely caused by humans producing pollution (i. . burning of fossil fuels; accumulating vast amounts of garbage in dumps) and removing large areas of forests, which has caused an excess of heat-trapping gasses in the atmosphere. This is believed to be causing significant changes in weather patterns resulting in more frequent occurrences of drought, flooding, hurricanes and heat waves. Consequently, these weather pattern changes are believed to have had, and will continue to have, negative physical effects for all living beings (e. . increased rates of death from famine; increases in life-threatening diseases) which will only intensify over time if changes are not enacted throughout the world (United Nations, 2009). The United Nations has taken the lead on a ‘call to arms’ for nations to become engaged in formulating a global response to the problem. This began with the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) developed in 1992 to begin to consider what can be done to reduce global warming.

In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted by 184 world partners who committed to reducing their emissions by an average of 5 percent by 2012 1. from 1990 levels. Currently, the United Nations is hosting the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen to further the work completed by the Kyoto Protocol. The goal of this conference is to strengthen the multi-nation commitments made in 1997 to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases which cause lobal warming and the resultant negative health effects (United Nations, 2009). Because of the heightened awareness of the problems of global warming, responses to mitigate the negative effects are not only being seen as the responsibility of political leaders, but of all citizens. This has been reinforced through education about the importance of all citizens engaging in sustainable practices (e. g. , reduce, reuse, recycle) in our everyday lives.

The Brundtland Commission of the United Nations developed the following definition of sustainability and sustainable development, which is ‘…development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs which can sustain all life-forms without destroying or depleting natural resources’ (United Nations, 1987). Governmental and non-governmental organizations have utilized numerous resources (e. g. financial incentives, educational publications, public forums) to educate individual citizens and corporations about ways in which they can adopt sustainable practices.

The tourism industry has taken this message to heart by advocating the concept of ‘ecotourism’ as they 2. realize ‘Profitability in tourism depends on maintaining the attractiveness of the destination people want to see and experience’ (Goeldner & Ritchie, 2009, pgs. 470). There is also a growing awareness that making ecotourism opportunities available for tourists is good for business in that tourists are increasingly demanding products and experiences which are educationally stimulating and environmentally conscious.

It is anticipated demand in this area will be maintained for the foreseeable future (Government of Ontario, 2009). This paper will outline the potential benefits and dangers of ecotourism by first deriving a better understanding of the issue by examining the industry as a whole, and then more closely looking at ecotourism from the perspective of an operation based in Rathdowney, Queensland, Australia. Ecotourism Industry

Ecotourism has been defined in a number of ways, but one definition from the Travel Industry Association of Canada (TIAC) describes ecotourism as ‘… a segment of sustainable tourism that offers experiences that enable visitors to discover natural areas while preserving their integrity, and to understand, through interpretation and education, the natural and cultural sense of place’ (2003 as cited in Goeldner & Ritchie, 2009, pg. 484).

What is particularly attractive about ecotourism is the recognition of its potential to be a ‘win-win’ situation in terms of conserving the environment while benefiting local communities at the same time. More specifically, the 3. possible benefits cited for those countries who develop, implement, and maintain ecotourism projects include: -offering local people the opportunity to earn income and escape poverty by engaging in environmentally friendly work (e. g. sharing their knowledge of the local terrain, culture, language and ecology with visitors; maintaining environmental preserves; developing markets for local handicrafts) versus engaging in work which destroys the environment and contributes to greenhouse gas emissions such as clear cutting land for farming -attracting foreign visitors with the type of environmental education and emotionally satisfying ‘out of the ordinary’ experiences they are looking for. This in turns provides opportunities for engaging in an productive dialogues with people from different backgrounds.

These exchanges can encourage visitors to adopt the role of advocates in raising awareness of the problems facing a particular area or its people -environmentally providing for long-term protection of the land and its resources by preserving ecosystems that might otherwise be lost -reinvestment back into local communities via income derived from ecotourism attractions so it can be channeled into programs that further scientific knowledge about the area’s ecology; support preservation and rehabilitation efforts; and observe the effects of opening the area to tourists to ensure their visits do not degrade precious resources (Lindsay, 2003)

When considering the possible benefits of ecotourism, it becomes readily apparent that without proper implementation and management controls there is the potential for abuse within this segment of the tourist industry which can result in more detriments than benefits. Indeed, the main problem cited has been damage to, rather than preservation of the environment, including over-consumption of natural resources, increased pollution, destroying or negatively altering ecologically fragile areas, and harm to both land and marine wildlife habitats (World Wild Fund for Nature, . 2001). For example, the Balearic Islands (a group of islands in the Mediterranean) is one area regarded as having experienced the detrimental effects from tourism related activities (e. g. increased water pollution, deterioration of natural areas, excessive consumption of limited fresh water resources) (World Tourism Organization, 2002). In order for ecotourism to have beneficial, rather than harmful, outcomes for a particular area, it’s widely acknowledged that political leaders, operators of tourism related businesses, and other stakeholders (e. . , tourists) have an ethical obligation to educate themselves regarding ecotourism related best practices and respect any guidelines that have been developed. There are a number of organizations taking on a leadership role in terms of developing these educational tools including the United Nations World Tourism Organization, the World Travel and Tourism Council, Business Enterprises for Sustainable Travel, the Tourism Industry Association of Canada, the Travel Industry Association of America (Goeldner & Ritchie, 2009).

As a result of these efforts, in general it has been suggested that the most beneficial practices are those in which: • The value of an area’s cultural and natural resources is respected and tourist activities do not overtax or degrade these resources • All stakeholders (local community members, business leaders, indigenous groups, representatives of governmental and non-governmental organizations, tourists) commit to forming partnerships in order to work together for the most optimal results 5. A proportion of revenue generated from the tourism industry is reinvested in the local community to support environmental conservation efforts, the enhancement of scientific knowledge and cultural benefits for the community • Legal, political, and funding mechanisms are established to facilitate the planning, implementation, and management of ecotourism initiatives • Mechanisms are devised and put in place to monitor the impacts of any ecotourism developments and efficiently respond to any concerns which arise (World Tourism Organization, 2002).

The ultimate goal is for baseline criteria to be defined (i. e. standards, guidelines, policies and procedures) which are tailored to each country’s specific characteristics (e. g. , demographic, cultural, ecological), in an attempt to encourage tourism related industries to become ecotourism certified. The main objective is to help travelers discern the less conscientious businesses from those that truly take steps to be environmentally friendly so that tourists will support certified businesses.

In addition, it is hoped having criteria in place will hold those who have achieved certification accountable to uphold the promises they made which enabled them to become certified (e. g. energy conservation measures, positive environmental and community impact). Rathdowney, Queensland, Australia Rathdowney is a small town about one and half hours away from Brisbane (the capital) in the state of Queensland, Australia which occupies the north- 6. eastern section of the country.

Located in the Scenic Rim (a group of mountain ranges), and settled initially in the 1860’s, it had a population of just less than 200 people in 2006. It is within close proximity to some of the regions of the greatest biodiversity in Australia (e. g. , Currawynia and Mount Barney National Parks). As visitors come through the area it provides some support for some small businesses in the town (e. g. , cafe, service station, post office, information center) (Wikipedia, 2009) however, the only business based in Rathdowney which is exclusively focused on serving tourists is Araucaria Ecotours.

Araucaria Ecotours is a small business established in Rathdowney in 1997 which is operated mainly by a husband and wife team, and their son. It is based on an 87 acre property (where the family also resides). Characteristics of the property include portions of mature rainforest re-growth and a main creek which runs partially through their land, with most of the property covered in what they refer to as native kangaroo grass. They also note there is also a large variety of protected wildlife on their property (invertebrates, mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish native to Australia.

They appear to have a desire to demonstrate that they are ethically responsible by achieving certification as an ‘Advanced Ecotourism Operator’ by Ecotourism Australia which means they have demonstrated a commitment to ecotourism best practices by ‘… using resources wisely, contributing to the conservation of the environment’ and helping the local community (Ecotourism Australia, 2009). 7. When looking more closely at their operations, from an ecotourism perspective, it is evident that their business produces some financial, educational and environmental benefits.

The business employs students to assist with the maintenance of the property and the educational tours they operate for visitors which include day tours (i. e. bird-watching, bushwalking, wildlife, rainforest, customized) and extended tours (i. e. 3 day wildlife tour, weekend camps, 6 day outback tours, customized) both on their property and National parks nearby. These tours focus on educating people about understanding the linkages between plants, wildlife, humans and the environment; the importance of habitat conservation and restoration; and how to approach and observe animals without harming them in any way.

It is also noted that one of the owners, Ronda Green (who has a PhD in zoology) has been active in conducting ecological research to further inform and educate the public. Environmentally, they actively engage in modeling and educating their visitors about sustainable practices (e. g. , uses of alternative sources of energy, recycling), and the importance of protecting and sustaining the natural environment (e. g. , restoration of trees and preservation of wildlife on their property). Financially, they reinvest in ehabilitation efforts in their property and provide support to groups committed to advocating for environmental sustainability such as Ecotourism Australia, the Ecology Society 8. of Australia, and Wildlife Tourism Australia. Conclusion Araucaria Ecotours, the only ecotourism business based in Rathdowney, Queensland, Australia appears to be commended for their efforts to operate in an ethically responsible manner by abiding by the best practice guidelines established by Ecotourism Australia.

They appear to use resources wisely, contribute to the conservation of the environment, provide meaningful educational opportunities for their visitors, financially reinvest in their own property as well as supporting groups with a focus on environmental preservation, and help their local community, all of which have been identified as worthwhile objectives in the ecotourism industry.

However, because ecotourism certification is a relatively new development in the tourism industry, there appears to be little in the way of independent research that has been conducted as to how effective certification programs have been in ensuring that operators who have been certified are complying over the long-term with the standards they agreed to. As well, groups such as Ecotourism Australia act as non-profit, self-governing bodies, with limited oversight on operations once they have certified them.

Therefore, they appear to have very limited abilities to enforce the standards they’ve established and have no legal powers to compel tourism operators to change their actions if they are indeed demonstrating they are not operating in ways which are consistent with 9. protecting the environment. The most they can do is to remove the operator’s certification status and report any concerns to government authorities. In conclusion, there appears to be a need for more work to e done on an international, national, and community basis to ensure any certification processes put in place are sound and that operators who are certified are actively monitored on a regular basis to ensure their actions are consistent with best practice guidelines in place. With sustainable living as the goal, the potential negative outcomes for not engaging in due diligence are too many for all stakeholders to not be proactive in this regard. 10. References Ecotourism Australia (2009). Eco Certification Program.

Retrieved from http://www. ecotourism. org. au/eco_certification. asp Goeldner, Charles R. and Ritchie, J. R. Brent (2009). Tourism: Principles, Practices and Philosophies. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Government of Ontario (2009). Global Tourism Opportunities: Research Study. Retrieved from http://www. tourism. gov. on. ca/english/competitiveness/Global_Tourism_Opportunities. pdf Lindsay, H. E. (2003). Ecotourism: the Promise and Perils of Environmentally- Oriented Travel. Retrieved from http://www. csa. om/discoveryguides/ecotour/overview. php United Nations (2009). Fact sheet: An introduction to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) and its Kyoto Protocol. Retrieved from http://unfccc. int/press/fact_sheets/items/4978. php United Nations (2009). Fact sheet: What is the United Nations Climate Change Conference. Retrieved from http://unfccc. int/press/fact_sheets/items/4980. php United Nations General Assembly (1987). Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future.

Retrieved from http://www. un-documents. net/wced-ocf. htm World Tourism Organization (2002). World Ecotourism Summit: Final Report. Retrieved from http://pub. unwto. org/WebRoot/Store/Shops/Infoshop/Products/1269/1269- 1. pdf World Wide Fund For Nature (2001). Preliminary Assessment of the Environmental & Social Effects of Liberalization in Tourism Services. Retrieved from http://www. icrtourism. org/Publications/tourism. PDF Wikipedia (2009). Rathdowney, Queensland. Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Rathdowney,_Queensland

A Computer Maintenance Management System That’s Right-Sized for Your Facility’s Needs Is a Powerful Tool

A CMMS That’s Right-Sized for Your Facility’s Needs is a Powerful Tool A well-utilized CMMS facilitates day-to-day operations resulting in efficiencies that are not possible with manual systems. It also provides comprehensive information and analysis to managers that support fact-based decisions enabling enterprise-wide optimizations and accountability. By Kris Bagadia and Ron Kossik Many organizations use their computerized maintenance management system as just a record keeping tool. If that’s all they want, a spreadsheet perhaps can suffice.

A successful CMMS is a tool that goes far beyond just record keeping. By not fully utilizing the CMMS, maintenance operations are missing out on opportunities to save time and money. As the utilization of CMMS increases, overall productivity and profitability also increases. Basic Functionality A typical CMMS has the following modules: asset/equipment, preventive maintenance (PM), work order system, parts inventory and purchasing. • Asset/equipment. Using this module, you enter information on assets into the system (such as asset ID, location, model, serial number etc. . • Preventive maintenance. This defines the PM task lists including material and labor requirements, frequency (calendar or run time), starting date etc. for each asset you want to perform PM on. Setting up the PM schedule is a one-time effort. After that, the system generates PM work orders when they are due on an ongoing basis. • Work orders. This is where all the work orders are generated and completed (PM, repairs and projects etc. ). The actual time spent, material and tools used are recorded here and is included in the maintenance history of each asset. Parts inventory. This module keeps track of items in stock, indicates when stock falls to user defined reorder points and creates requisitions. • Purchasing. This module enables you to create and process requisitions and purchase orders. A properly implemented CMMS will increase overall productivity by improving work process flow, helping you migrate from reactive to proactive mode, incorporating PM optimization and trending analysis etc. For example, a CMMS can help you: • Improve efficiency by organizing, distributing and anaging maintenance related information. Inefficiencies arising from information bottlenecks are eliminated. • Provide all stakeholders with real-time information that is relevant to them. Maintenance technicians can obtain a prioritized list of open work orders. Requesters can check status information without distracting maintenance staff. Managers can view reports of backlog work orders including total estimated backlog hours. Corporate management can produce comprehensive reports profiling resource utilization and compliance requirements. Produce reliable information to enable informed decisions at all levels of the enterprise, including requesters, technicians, managers and corporate management. • Identify non-value-added activities and shorten process cycle-time as part of a continuous improvement program. For example, if the maintenance department spends a great deal of time waiting for parts, approval, instructions and equipment to be available etc. , CMMS can help identify where exactly maintenance is losing most of the time enabling you to analyze the situation and correct it. Analyze maintenance data and make meaningful decisions based on accurate and objective information. For example, you can review work order schedule compliance, ratios of PM and repair work orders compared to total work orders and necessary corrective action. Another example is reviewing a compliance report such as shown below to investigate the failure rates and then taking corrective actions to minimize them. • Identify abnormal readings. Maintenance operations frequently gather readings on a variety of equipment such as boilers, chillers etc.

In a paper based system, forms are filled out and filed away (never to be found again! ). Some companies have started using their CMMS to record and save these readings for say, pressure, temperature and the like. The purpose of this data is to identify abnormal readings and correct problems to prevent failures. A CMMS is just the tool to accomplish that. Once you have defined a certain range and criteria, CMMS will flag a warning immediately upon meeting those criteria. For example, if the temperature reading falls outside of certain range, it will notify you instantly so you can take corrective action.

A Starting Point Do a thorough needs analysis. Besides considering core components such as work order request, work order tracking and inventory control, you should consider the possibility of incorporating planning and scheduling, mobile technology and interfacing to other systems to enhance your productivity. The time and money spent on needs analysis will save you a lot of money and hassles in the future. Plan Implementation Strategies Statistics show 80% of CMMS implementation projects fail. The definition of failure is either the CMMS was never used or use was attempted for a few months and stopped.

The bottom line is unsuccessful implementation. The upper management must recognize the steps and costs involved in implementing a CMMS project. The cost of CMMS acquisition is only a small fraction of overall cost. A successful implementation can easily cost 10 to 20 times the cost of the software. You need implementation experts to manage these kinds of projects in order to achieve proper return on your investment. A CMMS implementation is not just entering the data, work order tracking and generating a bunch of reports. CMMS is a tool that can truly improve your productivity.

You need to plan implementation strategies. You need to consider equipment, location and inventory part numbering schemes, who will generate work orders, who will close work orders (administrative clerk or technicians), is there a need to interface your CMMS to other sstems such as Building Control System etc. Management should provide resources for this purpose. Aurora St. Luke’s Medical Center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is internationally recognized for cutting-edge treatment technologies and exceptional physician specialists.

Its 65 maintenance technicians support a 938-bed hospital and 15-plus buildings on a 2 million-plus square foot campus, in addition to supporting several outlying locations. Nolan Harp, plant operations manager, recognized that the current computerized maintenance software was inefficient, presented ongoing problems and they needed something better. In 2005, St. Luke’s hired my company to help upgrade the CMMS and implement it. The software selected was a web-based CMMS solution. “Implementation was lot more complex than we thought.

Raised lot of new questions, discovered lot of new ways to solve a problem. Now, rather than just a PM system, we have a true maintenance management system. The progress has been steady…,” Harp said. Selection If you are using only a fraction of your CMMS available features and are satisfied, it indicates wrong selection of CMMS. It means you have many bells and whistles in your CMMS that you don’t need. That cost your organization money for software acquisition and training that could have been avoided by selecting the right package based on your needs.

Whether you are upgrading to a newer version of an existing CMMS or acquiring a new CMMS, selecting the right package is crucial to a successful implementation and enabling you to fully utilize your CMMS. Here are some guidelines to follow: • Easy to use and flexible. CMMS should be designed for end users not computer experts. The system has to be flexible enough to accommodate the way you do business not the other way around. At St. Luke’s, HVAC supervisor Cherian Varghese said the new system gives full control over the maintenance operation now. Take dampers for example,” Varghese said. “Now, all the dampers are in the system. We have complete history on them if the Joint Commission was to inspect now. We’ll be saving a substantial amount of money in repairs from now on. ” Added HVAC senior technicial Doug Bertram: “This is our fourth system; and this one is the most flexible and easy to use. The ability to define codes that work for us decreases the amount of typing by maintenance techs by 75%, which increases efficiency while reducing typing errors. ” • Queries and reporting. These are two very important aspects of a CMMS.

Once the implementation is complete, day to day, you retrieve the desired information and generate reports to make meaningful decisions. You should be able to retrieve any information you want, when you want and in the format you want. • Workflow. A CMMS can improve your workflow. Proper flow of work is very important, i. e. initiating and approving a work request, planning, scheduling, dispatching, completing and then following up for continuous improvement. An online work request system enhances the efficiency of the maintenance operation as well as the requester.

Requesters have convenient access to the status of open and completed requests, which reduces lost productivity from identifying and disposing of duplicate requests. “Now that we have implemented the work request system throughout the entire hospital, the majority of our requests come directly into the system,” Harp said. Enabling customers to enter and view their own work requests increases efficiency for both the requester and the maintenance department, by substantially reducing the number of phone calls to perform these functions.

Phone calls are a significant drain on productivity, not only due to the time they consume for both parties, but also because of the unplanned interruption of work by the person who receives the call. • Parts list. A CMMS has provision for specifying parts and tools on PM work orders. “Now technicians go prepared with the parts required resulting in less downtime,” Bertram said. • Mobility. “Taking route readings on a hand-held has helped a lot, because instead of ending up with a lot paper in files, we have information about our equipment that we can actually find and use,” Bertram said.

Adding mobility extends the power of CMMS tremendously. Conclusion Upper management’s commitment to stay involved with the project and to provide resources for training and implementation leads to a successful implementation. A well-utilized CMMS facilitates day-to-day operations resulting in efficiencies that are not possible with manual systems. Also, it provides comprehensive information and analysis to managers that support fact-based decisions enabling enterprise-wide optimizations and accountability.

Promotion Mix

PROMOTION MIX PROMOTION: Promotion is the process of communicating with individuals, groups or organizations to directly or indirectly facilitate exchanges by informing & persuading audiences to accept an organization /its products. One of the 4P’s of Marketing, it includes all tools available for ‘Marketing Communication’ RETAIL PROMOTION:

Retail Promotion is a comprehensive term for the means by which the retail offer is communicated to target customer groups, in order to inform, persuade & remind them of the benefits of utilizing a specific retailer’s outlet or to make a purchase of products, services and / or ideas offered for sale from the retailer. ELEMENTS OF RETAIL PROMOTION MIX: Basic tools to accomplish the retailer’s objectives including: Advertising Sales Promotions Publicity / Public Relations Personal Selling

Event Management ADVERTISING Paid form of communicating a message Uses various media Persuasive, Informative Designed to influence purchasing behavior or thought patterns. Defined as a one-way communication whose purpose is to inform potential customers about products & services, & how to obtain them. Examples of media to deliver messages Mass Media: Television, Radio, Print Direct Media: Leaflets, catalogues Outdoor Media: Billboards, Kiosks, Banners New Media: Video games, Internet SALES PROMOTIONS

Use of publicizing methods other than paid advertising to promote a product, service, etc. Activities, usually short-term, designed to attract attention to a particular product & to increase its sales. Usually run alongside advertising campaigns. Product may be offered at a reduced price or with a special offer May be supported by additional activities – telemarketing, competitions etc. PUBLIC RELATIONS Defined as using the news or press to carry positive stories about a company or products

Involves cultivating a good relationship with members of the press, whether independently by company, or using a mediator like a professional PR Agency Opposite of advertising In advertising, an organization pays to have its message placed in a newspaper, TV or radio spot In PR, the article featuring the company is not paid for. The reporter, whether broadcast or print, writes about or films the company as a result of information received & researched. PERSONAL SELLING Involves one-to-one communication between brand’s representative & prospective customer

Effective tool for building buyer preference, conviction & action Immediate & interactive personal interaction Each party can observe the others reactions Response is immediate and measurable EVENT MANAGEMENT Events help companies communicate with existing & potential customers, & can be created for any theme, festival, occasion Involves devising a concept, planning logistics, coordinating technical aspects & executing the proposed event May be done for publicity to be read by target market, or to actually interact with them

Top Ten Reasons to Stop Playing Online

Top Ten Reasons to stop Video Gaming: 1. Availability of newer and better online games. Did you not notice that just a few days later or a week there is a new online game that is released into this world? , this is one of the never ending cycles that can get one of the people to play and expirience the new adventure of a game. 2. Poor return of investment. Many people play for hours and it would take many months to stop them but how about when they get bored? What do they do now? they sell their online accounts with only a fraction of what they really spent. 3. It Mursders any relationships. When people who are addicts to computer games play more and more they lose track of many things like for example their girlfriends, their mind is mostly on the game they play and sooner or later the girl will break up with the boy, and that’s another cycle we need to stop because this has been done a lot of time by now. 4. Addiction to games can ruin your grade or any kind of career.

Many people prefer to play games than to deal with the harsh reality of life. 5. Huge numbers of annoying characters. Im talking about the SCAMMERS, BAD MOUTHERS, KiLL-STEALERS, LOOTERS, IDENTITY THIEVES, GM Impersonators and most speciall the HACKERS. 6. Your buddies have stopped playing the game. What if all your friend stopped, what now? Its well known that it’s a lot of fun when one plays with friends, and it’s a bummer of you have no one to relate with in the game. 7. The Service and and or support system is just plain awful.

Well, we all know that the games just don’t give 100% so why play the games that you will not give a 100% support for you? Its just awful and also if you lost your items, what will they do? That’s just a starter for one of the many complaints. 8. Financial Drainage. All the games require money even if its FREE-TO-PLAY they will drain all of your hard earned money and many children and teens steal just to load and play in the computer games they solely love. 9. Its super Dangerous to your health.

So, you think your safe while playing a game? Ever heard about muscle pain and exposure to radiation, this is just two of the many things that can make you sick to your whole life 10. It takes to much time. Time is Gold, all of the hours you could have spen bettering your life is all gone, (I HOPE YOU READ THE THINGS HERE BECAUSE IT IMPORTANT) The stopping of playing online games is up to you, try to stopping it moderately if you play 5 hours every try try 4 hours for a week than 3 hours for the next week and so on and so forth.

Summary And Conclusion: My summary for this research is that playing computer games may be fun and it is also way dangerous if you get hooked on one of the computer games just think of the concingqences that you will get just look that the dangers and the TOP 10 Reasons to stop playing games In this research paper I have completed to make it a convincing and a very helpful research that can and will help many people to understand the dangers of playing online games Everone can change if wanted, we cant do anything to those who does want to change.

Islam and Science

Ars Disputandi Volume 6 (2006) ???? : 1566–5399 Roxanne D. Marcotte ?????????? ?? ?????????? , ????????? Islam and Science By Muza? ar Iqbal (Ashgate Science and Religion Series), Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2002; xxii + 372 pp. ; hb. ? 52. 50, pb. ? 22. 50; ???? : 0–7546–0799–2/0–7546–0800–x. Islam and Science presents an articulate and concise historical introduction to intellectual developments that have shaped Islamic civilization, both religious and scienti? c. The work attempts to ‘construct a coherent account of the larger religious and cultural background’ in which the Islamic scienti? tradition came into existence and to explore the ‘vexingly complex’ issue of its decline. The main thesis is that scienti? c traditions ‘arose from the bosom of a tradition of learning that had been grounded in the very heart of the primary sources of Islam: the Qur’an and Hadith. ’ The latter are reports of the deeds and statements of the Prophet that became the sunna, or tradition of the Prophet. Before addressing di? culties that such a thesis raises, let us ? rst provide an overview of the structure of the 11 chapters. [2] The ? st chapter covers the emergence of an Islamic scienti? c tradition during the ? rst two centuries of Islamic civilization: both the emergence of new religious sciences, with the study of Qur’an and hadiths, and the presence of scienti? c traditions (atomism of the theologians, astronomy, medicine, alchemy). Chapter two introduces the Qur’anic foundation that linked events occurring in nature to the Qur’an central message and that established a ‘nexus between the physical cosmos and the metaphysical realm’ that was to become the heart of the Islamic scienti? tradition. The third chapter describes the advent of the translation movement and the theological (kalam) debates over the rational explanations of Islamic doctrines that helped shape the religion/science connection. Chapter four explores this ‘fundamental nexus’ between the Islamic scienti? c tradition and the fundamental doctrines of Islam, mainly in metaphysics (cosmology), a nexus that the ‘very structure of learning from which natural sciences emerged’ guaranteed.

The work defends the idea that the Islamic worldview permeating society provided the ‘built-in mechanism for wedding these sciences to the heart of Islamic thought,’ such that the ‘reality of Islam’ constituted the vertical axis, while the di? erent ideas and intellectual disciplines constituted the horizontal axis. The ? fth chapter sets out to introduce counter-examples (astronomy, medicine, geography) to the decline thesis, proceeds to refute a sociological explanation (Toby E. Hu? ), and claims that only a scienti? c tradition grounded in the fundamental doctrines of Islam can explain the existence of a thriving Islamic scienti? tradition later than the 12th century. Chapter six reviews the transmission of scienti? c c July 17, 2006, Ars Disputandi. If you would like to cite this article, please do so as follows: Roxanne D. Marcotte, ‘Review of Islam and Science,’ Ars Disputandi [http://www. ArsDisputandi. org] 6 (2006), paragraph number. [1] Roxanne D. Marcotte: Review of Islam and Science knowledge from the Islamic world via the translation of Arabic scienti? c works to the West and its capital importance for the development of the Western scienti? c tradition. 3] The seventh and eight chapters explore the complex, interconnected and diverse forces of the last two centuries, associated primarily with colonization, that changed the Muslim world in four fundamental ways: the disintegration of the umma, or community of Muslims (political transformation), the lost of the primacy of Arabic as lingua franca, the replacement of the traditional system of education with a Western educational system, and the introduction of a Western political system and its institutions. These changes are responsible for the decline of the Islamic scienti? c tradition.

They introduced a new kind of discourse, whereby science is ‘no more the integral unit of the Islamic tradition,’ but becomes ‘an autonomous and powerful entity, independently and de? antly charting its own course’ with its own ‘theology of nature and a world view competing against other worldviews. ’ The ninth chapter presents apologetic discourses on the harmony between science and Islam as the product of the ’colonized’ discourses of indigenous Muslim reformers of the late 19th century. Chapter ten criticizes ‘Islamization of modern science’ projects, a new genre of scienti? exegesis of the Qur’an, for their ‘profanation of the religious texts,’ since the Qur’an cannot be interpreted ‘in the light of a knowledge that is always changing. ’ The last chapter calls for a reconnection of Islam and science ‘through a central nexus which is the unitive function’ that was and should constitute the basis of any Islam/science discourse. [4] Written from an insider’s perspective, the work will undoubtedly fuel debates over the nature of the relationship between Islam and science, both the one that existed in the past and the one that should exist today.

The author is not a philosopher, a historian or a sociologist of science, nor a historian of ideas, but a Muslim chemist and writer who is aware that his tentative conclusions ‘might not be shared by certain historians of science’ in Islam. A closer examination of the work may explain why this might be so. [5] A ? rst methodological di? culty the work encounters is rooted in a conceptual confusion over what constitutes the ‘Islamic scienti? c tradition,’ since it includes: Islamic ‘religious sciences,’ esoteric traditions in? enced by various Greek hermetic and alchemic traditions, medieval theological cosmologies, medieval philosophical speculations (theological, metaphysical, ontological, cosmological), various theological discussions about time, causality, motion, and creation and their attempts at harmonizing theology and metaphysics, an Islamic aesthetic experiential component (architecture), and speci? cally scienti? c disciplines (astronomy, medicine, mathematics, physics). An all-encompassing notion of Islamic scienti? tradition can then provide support for the main thesis, encapsulated in such statements as ‘the Qur’an is the foundation upon which everything Islamic is built . . . the primary source, the essential textbook’ of all knowledge, both religious and secular, that emerged from the Islamic civilization. Such claims become the basis for what is then taken as demonstrations of the existence of an inherent ‘nexus’ between Qur’an/religion and all sciences, both Ars Disputandi 6 (2006), http://www. ArsDisputandi. org Roxanne D. Marcotte: Review of Islam and Science religious sciences and the speci? ally scienti? c (secular) disciplines. Holding that certain Qur’anic beliefs were at the heart of scienti? c explanations and that methodologies developed by the religious Qur’anic sciences provided some elements of the methodology used by natural sciences is quite problematic. The work fails to properly explain why most scienti? c works did not refer to the Qur’an. Stating that what infused their works was the metaphysics of the Qur’an, which implicitly assumes the existence of a relationship between metaphysical knowledge and the scienti? c traditions, is not a historical or a scienti? explanation. The premises of such arguments can only lead to the more serious problem of drawing erroneous conclusions that ascribe to the Qur’an and its central message the role of establishing a ‘nexus between the physical cosmos and the metaphysical realm’ as objects of a scienti? c investigation. If one argues that the Hebrew Bible is similar in this regard, how would one account for the lack of scienti? c impact in the Jewish tradition. The work assumes that there was no distinction between Islamic metaphysical principles and the scienti? c tradition.

In the classical period, Islam infused all aspect of the intellectual activities of Muslims as well as the scienti? c tradition, by providing the latter with its core Islamic metaphysical principles from which it was not divorced. The history of such sciences as mathematics, biology, astronomy (or the new sciences of molecular microbiology, genetics, astrophysics, etc. ) in the Islamic world cannot be reduced to or explained by appealing to Islamic metaphysical principles. The work illustrates the di? culties that a non rigorous use of what constitutes a ‘scienti? c’ tradition can generate. 6] This brings us to a second methodological problem that is rooted in the presentation of evidence. The work’s account of the development of sciences in Islam provides fodder for the main thesis. Examples provided to illustrate the process of appropriation, translation and naturalization of new knowledge abound, e. g. , for the religious sciences and for theology, but the work falls short of convincingly illustrating and demonstrating that this was the case in the realm of natural or theoretical sciences to the extent that only what was Islamic was retained and naturalized.

This was certainly not the case with al-Khwarazmi or Ibn Hayyan whose works were certainly more in? uenced by ideas that were non Islamic, e. g. , Greek, Egyptian, Indian, Persian, Babylonian. Equally problematic are unsubstantiated claims that the sciences of early Islam developed a Qur’an methodology that was used by the scienti? c tradition. The work also adduces examples of theologians (mutakallimun) who worked on ideas that embraced logic, epistemology and cosmology, failing to note that the latter were all at the service of their theological metaphysics, e. . , their atomism to account for an Islamic understanding of the world and of God’s actions. The work notes that the Islamic scienti? c tradition was only one part of the larger context of the Islamic tradition, or what it calls the ‘cultural matrix’ that gave it birth, but maintains a reductionist assumption that every scienti? c development in the Islamic world was shaped by Islam and its worldview and glosses over much of the more complex issues that lie at the heart of the historical development of scienti? traditions in the Muslim world. Ars Disputandi 6 (2006), http://www. ArsDisputandi. org Roxanne D. Marcotte: Review of Islam and Science [7] The source of these methodological problems lies perhaps with the work’s holistic approach that places the Qur’an (revelation) and the sunna of the Prophet at the heart of the religion/science nexus, in order to argue that an ‘intrinsic nexus between various levels of existence transforms the multiplicity of appearances into a unity.

The ultimate foundation of their interrelatedness at the level of cosmic existence is their ontological dependence on God. ’ This ontological unitive principle, derived from the Islamic notion of unity (tawhid), is projected onto all facets of human experience (ethics, moral, metaphysics, sociology, politics) that extend to the ‘numerous internal links between all branches of knowledge in Islam as well as the process through which an integrated and holistic theory of knowledge had emerged from the twin sources of revelation and the tradition of the Prophet of Islam. This particular holistic approach accounts for a number of problematic claims that the Islamic scienti? c tradition was ‘intimately connected with the worldview created by Islam and so thoroughly rooted in the Qur’an’s and that the same Islamic metaphysical truths that produced Islamic medieval metaphysical discourses (theology, cosmology, philosophy) were – and are still – capable of producing Islamic sciences. Such claims are controversial from historical, sociological and epistemological perspectives, but this does not prevent the author to a? m that ‘for a creative exploration of the relationship between Islam and modern science, one needs to examine modern science from the perspective of the Islamic concept of nature taken as a whole and within its own matrix which is based on the revealed text, the Qur’an, and supplemented by the Sunna of the Prophet of Islam. ’ Less ideological is the forthcoming Bennacer El Bouazzati’s ‘The Formation of the Scienti? c Tradition within Islamic Culture’ (in Mohammed Abattouy (ed. ), La science dans les societes islamiques, Casablanca: Publications de la Fondation du Roi Abdulaziz pour les sciences humaines et les etudes islamiques, 2006). 8] In his ‘Islam and Science: A false Statement of the Problem’ published in Islam & Science: Journal of Islamic Perspectives on Science (Dec. 2003), Gutas has, perhaps, best illustrated the problem that this type of approach encounters in its attempt to ascribe some sort of historical ‘agency’ to religious beliefs, i. e. , to Islam and its metaphysical worldview, over scienti? c activities. Islam and Science holds that a society dominated by Islamic values, nourished by the teachings of the Qur’an and the hadiths, provided the impetus for the development of the rich Islamic scienti? tradition and thus incorrectly suggests that religious beliefs/worldviews, i. e. , Islam, can be the main driving forces behind the development of a scienti? c tradition. This was certainly not the case in the West where the rise of the scienti? c tradition occurred without the metaphysical principles of the Qur’an and the sunna. The work notes the impact of foreign (Greek) knowledge, but argues that the advent and decline of the Islamic scienti? c tradition owes everything to the presence or absence of the Islamic/religious worldview.

On the contrary, theological and metaphysical worldviews that religious traditions produce and postulate neither produce science, nor scienti? c explanations. Theological and metaphysical explanations are by de? nition ‘scienti? cally’ non demonstrable and, therefore, not part of a scienti? c method or explanation. The Ars Disputandi 6 (2006), http://www. ArsDisputandi. org Roxanne D. Marcotte: Review of Islam and Science work’s theological and metaphysical explanations fail to take into account any sociological, economical, or political factors in its explanation of the development (rise and decline) of a thriving scienti? tradition, with research projects, funding, institutions, and patronage. [9] E? orts to demonstrate the existence of an inherent ‘nexus’ between Islam and science constitute part of the ‘ideological’ underpinning of the work. Arguments for the role of this nexus to explain the vitality and the decline of the scienti? c traditions in the Islamic world are used to suggest that a revival of this original medieval religion/science symbiosis provides the conditions for the establishment of the needed ‘new nexus. The ideological underpinning of the work constitutes the hallmark of a familiar holistic revivalist (fundamentalist) discourse. At the heart of all revivalist projects is an ‘idealized’ version of Islam that the ‘vanguard’ (term used in the work and made famous by Sayyid Qutb, one of the leaders of the holistic revivalist project of the Muslim Brotherhood) attempts to re-actualize and implement via the establishment of an Islamic Society/State. In this work, Islam’s idealized role is projected onto the development of scienti? c traditions.

This is made evident with the implicit prescriptive solutions for the revival of a truly Islamic scienti? c tradition: (i) the revival of the umma (political entity), (ii) a return to Arabic as lingua franca of the Islamic world, (iii) the reintroduction of the traditional (religious) system of education, and (iv) a return to an Islamic political system and its (traditional) institutions. Islamic sciences will once again thrive when scientists will be educated and trained in an ‘organic’ and living Islamic tradition (read: a re-Islamized society).

Islamic beliefs and worldviews will become producers of an Islamic scienti? c tradition once the Qur’an and the sunna reintroduce this ‘matrix’, productive of knew Islamic knowledge. Once more, the problem of agency attributed to Islam in the medieval period resurfaces as the conditions for the naturalization of new knowledge become the re-Islamization of Muslim societies, through education. The work rests on the (false) assumption that Islam, or any religious tradition, was and, more problematic, can be the driving engine that produces a scienti? c tradition. 10] The work provides a useful historical overview of the development of di? erent intellectual traditions and debates in Islam, but it does not provide philosophical discussions on contemporary issues or on their philosophical implications (e. g. , theory of evolution, theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, chaos theory, stem cell research). Such contemporary debates are deemed a mere ‘historical anomaly’ in Islam. Islam is unique. These religion/science debates are foreign to Islam and only occur today because of a lost of the original religion/science ‘nexus. Once reestablished via the ‘new nexus,’ this anomaly will disappear. For similar reasons, Islam cannot be classi? ed in any of the traditional typologies (e. g. , Ian Barbour) that try to explain the religion/science relationship. Again, Islam is unique. The work is a Muslim’s ‘urgent and creative response’ to the ‘triumphant force of modern science that seeks to replace all worldviews other than its own,’ i. e. , the Islamic worldview. On the whole, the work does not quite succeed to overcome the intellectual paucity of contemporary studies on the religion and science debate in Islam.

The work, however, provides a useful review of existing Ars Disputandi 6 (2006), http://www. ArsDisputandi. org Roxanne D. Marcotte: Review of Islam and Science scholarship on various scienti? c (religious, philosophical, theological, natural sciences, etc. ) traditions that took place in the Islamic world and of some of their historical developments. A work that explores the philosophical problems that arise with the contemporary Islam and science discourse has yet to be written. Ars Disputandi 6 (2006), http://www. ArsDisputandi. org


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