In this chapter, the writer briefly reviewed the literature related to this survey. The impression of larning manners including definition of the key footings, classs of larning manners, and Oxford ‘s theory on linguistic communication acquisition manners were first reviewed. Then the writer examined the gender and foreign linguistic communication larning theories related to larning manners. Finally, the writer reviewed old surveies that have been made on the relationship between larning manners and 2nd or foreign linguistic communication larning both abroad and place.
2.1 Theories Related to Learning Styles
This subdivision includes definitions of different footings of acquisition manners, classs
of larning manners and Oxford ‘s theory of linguistic communication acquisition manners.
2.1.1 Different Footings Sing Learning Manners
The definitions of manners and acquisition manners are first reviewed, and so cognitive
manners and acquisition manners are differentiated in this portion.
126.96.36.199 Definitions of Styles and Learning Styles
Before reexamining the literature of larning manners, it is necessary to cognize the
definition of “ manners ” . The construct of “ manners ” was foremost put frontward by cognitive psychologists. Brown ( 2002: 104 ) defines manner as “ a term that refers to consistent and instead digesting inclinations or penchants within an person. ” Therefore, manners are those general features of rational operation ( and personality type, as good ) that particularly refer to one as an person, that differentiate one from person
aˆ? Learning Manners
Sing surveies of larning manners, the most serious job is the confusion of
its definitions. In the past two decennaries, the acquisition manners has been used in assorted
and sometimes confounding ways in the literature. It is really common to hear different sentiments on its definitions based on different findings in this relatively new research field of larning manners, for each survey defines it from peculiar positions. However, there is non an agree-upon definition of larning manners. Learning manners can be defined in the undermentioned ways.
Keefe ( 1979, cited in Brown, 2002:10 ) defines larning manners as “ the characteristic cognitive, affectional and physiological behaviours that serve as comparatively stable indexs of how scholars perceive, interact with and react to the acquisition environment. ”
Dunn et Al. ( 1978:11 ) defines larning manners as “ the manner in which each individual absorbs and retains information and/or accomplishments ; irrespective of how that procedure is described, it is dramatically different for each individual ” .
Sims & A ; Sims ( 1990, cited in Reid, 2002 ) put frontward that larning manners are typical ways a individual behaves, feels, and processes information in larning state of affairss. Therefore, larning manner is demonstrated in that form of behaviour and public presentation by which an person approaches educational experience.
Oxford et Al. ( 1991 ) briefly defines the learning manner as the general attacks pupils used to larn a new topic or undertake a new job.
Claxton and Murrell ( 1987, cited in Eliason, 2002: 19-20 ) use an onion metaphor in which the beds of the onion represent “ beds ” of larning manners: basic personality features form the nucleus ; information-processing features form the 2nd bed ; societal interaction features form a 3rd bed ; instructional penchants form the 4th and outmost bed. Claxton and Murrell postulate that the nucleus of the onion represents the most stable features, with each consecutive bed being increasingly more conformable to alter.
Tan Dingliang ( 1995: 12 ) defines larning manners as: “ the manner that a scholar frequently adopts in the acquisition procedure, which includes the acquisition schemes that have been stabilized within a scholar, the penchant of some instruction stimulations and larning inclination. ”
Reid ( 1995 ) summarizes definitions of larning manners as internally based
– 7 –
features of persons for the consumption or apprehension of new information.
Basically learning manners are based upon how a individual perceives and procedures
information to ease acquisition.
Among these definitions, Kinsella ‘ definition of larning manners is widely
recognized ( Reid, 2002 ) . Kinsella ( 1994, cited in Reid, 2002 ) concludes that larning manner is an person ‘s natural, accustomed, and preferable manner ( s ) of absorbing, processing, and retaining new information and accomplishments which persist regardless of learning methods or content country. Kinsella besides emphasizes that “ everyone has a learning manner, but each individual ‘s is every bit alone as a signature. Each signature appears to be influenced by both nature and raising ; it is a biological and developmental set of features. ” ( 1994, cited in Reid, 2002: 171 )
188.8.131.52 Cognitive Styles and Learning Styles
The 2nd job about the survey on larning manners is the confusion of the
significances of the footings of acquisition manners and cognitive manners as they are frequently used
interchangeably in research. The elucidation of the two footings will be helpful to break
understand acquisition manners.
Messick ‘s ( 1984 ) definition of cognitive manners has been widely cited. He defines
cognitive manners as “ consistent single differences in preferable ways of forming and treating information and experience. ” Cognitive manners are “ characteristic self-consistent manner of working which single shows in their perceptual and rational activities ” ( Stern, ! 983: 373 ) . Harmonizing to Tan Dingliang ( 1995 ) and Kang Shumin ( 2003 ) , cognitive manners chiefly refer to the ways of information processing, that is, single ‘s typical ways of treating perceptual experience, memory and thought.
Brown ( 2002: 104 ) suggests that “ the manner we learn things in general and the
peculiar onslaught we make on a job seem to hinge on a instead formless nexus between personality and knowledge ; this nexus is referred to as cognitive manner ” . Harmonizing to Brown ( 2002 ) , when cognitive manners are specially related to an educational context, where affectional and physiological factors are intermingled, they
are normally more by and large referred to as acquisition manners. Therefore from this position, acquisition manners are regarded as a subset of cognitive manners. Meanwhile, cognitive manners can sometimes be seen as a subset of larning manners. Keefe ( 1986 ) studies that larning manners include non merely cognitive procedures, but besides integrate affectional and physiological behaviours that assist scholars to comprehend, interact with, and respond to the acquisition environment.
Renzulli & A ; David Yun Dai ( 2001 ) distinguish the two footings in item: cognitive
manners are chiefly concerned in psychological sphere, while larning manners are chiefly proposed by research workers of educational field ; research workers of cognitive manners follow a more positive attack, whereas research workers of larning manners focus on a more phenomenological position. Sing the methodological analysis, performance-based step is normally used by cognitive manners research workers, while self-report is the step that larning manners research workers chiefly use.
2.1.2 Classs of Learning Styles
Confusion besides exists in the literature on classs of acquisition manners for many
same or similar factors researched under the same name. Reid ( 1995 ) divides
learning-style research into three major classs: cognitive manners, centripetal acquisition
manners, and personality acquisition manners.
184.108.40.206 Cognitive Learning Styles
Cognitive acquisition manners which include field-independent/field-dependent,
analytic/global, reflective/impulsive acquisition manners, and Kolb experiential acquisition theoretical account, belong to the facets of psychological science. Among them researches on field -independent/field-dependent ( FI/FD ) attract the most attending of SLA sphere ( Ellis, 1994 ) .
Harmonizing to Reid ( 1995 ) , field-independent scholars learn more efficaciously step
by measure, or consecutive, get downing with analysing facts and continuing to thoughts. They
see the trees alternatively of the forest ; whereas field-dependent ( field-sensitive ) scholars
learn more efficaciously in contexts, holistically, intuitively, and are particularly sensitive
to human relationships and interactions. They see the forest alternatively of the trees.
Chapelle ( 1995 ) explains that FI/FD refers to how people perceive and memorise
Reid ( 1995 ) defines that analytic scholars learn more efficaciously separately ;
prefer puting ain ends, and respond to a consecutive, additive, bit-by-bit presentation
of stuffs ; whereas planetary ( relational ) scholars learn more efficaciously through
concrete experience, and by interactions with others.
Harmonizing to Reid ( 1995 ) , if scholars can larn more efficaciously given clip to
see options before reacting, they are brooding scholars ; and they are frequently more accurate linguistic communication scholars ; whereas if scholars can larn more efficaciously being able to react instantly and to take hazards, they are unprompted scholars ; and they are frequently more fluid linguistic communication scholars.
Kolb ( 1984 ) categorizes his experiential larning theoretical account of perceptual experience ( concrete
experiences and abstract conceptualisation ) and procedure ( brooding observation and active experimentation ) into four scholar types which are converger, diverger, learner, and obliger. Converger ( common sense scholar ) learns more efficaciously when she or he is able to comprehend abstractly and to treat actively. Diverger ( advanced scholar ) learns more efficaciously when she or he is able to comprehend concretely and to treat reflectively. Assimilator ( analytic scholar ) learns more efficaciously when she or he is able to comprehend abstractly and to treat reflectively. Accommodator ( dynamic scholar ) learns more efficaciously when she or he is able to comprehend concretely and to treat actively.
220.127.116.11 Sensory Learning Styles
Harmonizing to Reid ( 1995 ) , centripetal acquisition manners include two dimensions:
perceptual acquisition manners and environmental acquisition manners. Perceptual acquisition manners contain four types of acquisition manners which are audile, ocular, haptic and kinaesthetic manners. Auditory scholars learn more efficaciously through the ears ; ocular scholars learn more efficaciously through the eyes ( seeing ) ; haptic scholars learn more efficaciously through touch ( hands-on ) ; kinaesthetic scholars learn more effectual through
concrete complete organic structure experiences ( whole-body motion ) .
Physical and sociological manners belong to the environmental acquisition manners.
Physical scholars learn more efficaciously when such variables as temperature, sound, visible radiation, nutrient, mobility, clip, and classroom/study agreement are considered. Sociological scholars learn more efficaciously when such variables as group, single, brace and squad work, or degrees of instructor authorization are considered.
18.104.22.168 Affective/Temperament Learning Styles
Learning manners of this type are based on affect, personality, tolerance of
ambiguity and encephalon hemisphere.
Myer and Briggs ( 1987, cited in Reid, 1995 ) study that affectional and personality
factors influence scholars ‘ acquisition styles a great trade. Mayer-Briggs squad tested four dichotomous manners of working in their Mayer and Briggs Temperament Styles ( MBTI ) which include extraversion-introversion, sensing-perception, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving.
Harmonizing to Reid ( 1995 ) , extroverted and introverted manners belong to
extraversion-introversion. Extroverted scholar learns more efficaciously through concrete experience, contract with the outside universe, and relationships with others ; whereas introverted learner learns more efficaciously in single, independent state of affairss that are more involved with thoughts and constructs. Sensing-perception contains feeling and perceptual experience manners. Feeling learner learns more efficaciously from studies of discernible facts and occurrences ; prefers physical, sense-based input. Conversely, perceptual experience scholar learns more efficaciously from meaningful experiences and from relationships with others. In thinking-feeling manners, believing learner learns more efficaciously from impersonal fortunes and logical effect ; whereas feeling scholar learns more efficaciously from personalized fortunes and societal values. And in judging-perceiving manners, judging learner learns more efficaciously by contemplation, and analysis, and processes that involve closing ; conversely, comprehending learner learns more efficaciously through dialogue, feeling, and inductive procedures that postpone closing.
Reid ( 1995 ) suggests that tolerance of ambiguity manners besides belong to the affective/temperament acquisition manners. Ambiguity-tolerant scholar learns more efficaciously when chances for experiment and hazard, every bit good as interaction, are present ; whereas ambiguity-intolerant scholars learns more efficaciously when in less flexible, less hazardous, more structured state of affairss.
Reid ( 1995 ) besides claims that whether the scholar is left-brained or right-brained will act upon scholar ‘s acquisition manners. Left-brained scholars tend toward ocular, analytic, brooding, autonomous acquisition ; conversely, right-brained scholars tend toward auditory, global/relational, unprompted, synergistic acquisition.
2.1.3 Oxford ‘s Language Learning Styles Theory
Oxford and Burry-stock ( 1995 ) put frontward the most important manners for ESL/EFL larning which include global/analytic, field-independent/field-dependent, feeling/thinking, impulsive/reflective, intuitive-random/concrete-sequential, closure-oriented/open, extroverted/introverted, and visual/auditory/hands-on manners. They suggest that each manner penchant offers important benefits for acquisition and that the of import thing for scholars is to place the manner penchants and to use them whenever possible.
Oxford ( 1991, cited in Kang Shumin, 2003 ) groups all the above acquisition manners into three classs: centripetal acquisition manners ( ocular, audile, and hands-on ) , cognitive acquisition manners ( intuitive-random and concrete-sequential, closure-oriented/open and global/analytic ) , and personality acquisition manners ( extroverted and introverted ) .
22.214.171.124 Sensory Learning Styles
aˆ? Visual manners
Ocular pupils enjoy reading and they prefer stuff in a schoolroom environment to be presented in a ocular format such as books, board work, and press releases.
aˆ? Auditory manners
Auditory pupils enjoy talks, conversations and unwritten waies. They prefer
stuff in a schoolroom environment that is presented as audile input such as wireless,
unwritten direction, unwritten communicating and audiotape.
aˆ? Hands-on manners
Hands-on pupils like tonss of motion and bask working with montages,
flash cards, and touchable objects. They prefer to be physically involved with undertakings,
be givening to prefer activities such as Entire physical Response ( TPR ) and role-play.
Oxford et Al ( 1992 ) find that centripetal penchants ( ocular, audile, and hands-on )
are really of import in the multicultural ESL/EFL schoolroom. Reid ( 1987 ) besides argues that ESL/EFL pupils from different civilizations vary significantly in their centripetal penchants. Those with Asiatic cultural backgrounds, for case, are frequently extremely ocular, while Spanish americans tend to be audile. Students from non-Western civilizations where hands-on experiences are valued frequently prefer a corresponding acquisition manner.
126.96.36.199 Cognitive Learning Styles
aˆ? Intuitive-random/concrete-sequential manners
Intuitive-random ESL/EFL pupils prefer to develop a mental image of the
2nd linguistic communication in an abstract, random mode in hunt of the implicit in linguistic communication
system. In the absence of comprehensive cognition of the mark linguistic communication, intuitive-
random manner scholars typically employ bad and prognostic schemes.
Concrete-sequential ESL/EFL pupils prefer stiffly performed, purely planned
and adhered to consecutive categories. They like linguistic communication acquisition stuffs and techniques that involve combinations of sound, motion, sight, and touch, and that can be applied in a concrete, consecutive, additive mode.
aˆ? Closure-Oriented/Open-oriented manners
Closure-oriented ESL/EFL pupils execute more efficaciously if presented with
structured activities and more clip. Typically, they favor carefully planned and
completed undertakings, as opposed to ambiguity and uncertainness in a schoolroom
– 13 –
Open-oriented ESL/EFL pupils favor a more unfastened and flexible agenda,
showing a high grade of tolerance towards ambiguity in the schoolroom. Typically, they approach a linguistic communication assignment or a category activity as though it were an entertaining game, and they do non worry about non groking everything, and do no experience the demand to come to rapid decisions about the subject.
aˆ? Global/Analytic Styles
The planetary manner ESL/EFL pupils typically employ a holistic position early in the
larning procedure, into which they fit more elaborate information as acquisition advancements. They typically look at several facets of the subject at the same clip, invariably doing corrections between the theoretical facets and practical applications as they learn, and do significant usage of analogies. Furthermore this type of scholar employs holistic schemes to work out jobs including thinking and paraphrasing, prefering a hunt for the general thought instead than for truth. Ellis ( 1989 ) argues that “ planetary scholars ” prefer experiential acquisition and larning through communicating.
The analytic manner ESL/EFL pupils have no problem picking out important
inside informations from a clutter of background points. They typically focus their attending more narrowly on pieces of information, how in the hierarchal construction, preferring item instead than the overall image. They are oriented towards regulations be givening to concentrate on bit-by-bit presentation of stuff. Typically, theoretical and practical facets are learned individually. Furthermore, this type of scholar employs linguistic communication schemes that favor exact give voicing instead than thinking or paraphrasing-in their purpose of accomplishing truth. Ellis ( 1989 ) suggests that “ analytic scholars ” prefer formal, single acquisition in a schoolroom environment.
188.8.131.52 Personality Learning Styles
The dimension of manners peculiarly influences schoolroom direction,
particularly grouping of pupils. Extrospective pupils perform most fruitfully in a
group environment, basking activities that involve other pupils, such as role-play,
conversation and other interaction prefering societal ends as opposed to impersonal
wagess. Conversely, introspective pupils are stimulated most by their ain interior universe of thoughts and feelings. They like working entirely or else in a brace with person they know good. They dislike tonss of uninterrupted group work in the ESL/EFL schoolroom. This contrast is slightly similar to the classs of group/individual manner made by Reid ( 1987 ) .
2.2 Gender Differences in Language Learning Styles
Many probes show that males and females learn otherwise. Where do the
gender differences come from? Several beginnings can be postulated for gender
differences in linguistic communication acquisition manners. Among these are encephalon hemisphericity and
2.2.1 Gender Differences in Brain Hemisphericity
Harmonizing to Oxford ( 2002 ) , encephalon hemisphericity or lateralisation ( right, left and
integrated ) is a characteristic of many larning manner studies. Research on the two intellectual hemispheres indicates that each hemisphere may be responsible for a peculiar manner of thought. The left hemisphere is associated with logical, analytical idea, with mathematical and additive processing of information. The right hemisphere perceives and remembers ocular, haptic and audile images and it is more efficient in treating holistic, integrative and emotional information ( Brown, 1994 ) . Each hemisphere trades with linguistic communication otherwise. Harmonizing to Willing ( 1988, cited in Oxford, 2002 ) , right-hemisphere-dominant persons — those whose right side of the encephalon typically dominates their thought procedures — be given to be more field dependant ( less able to divide the inside informations from a confounding background ) , planetary, and emotion-oriented. Willing ( 1988 ) and Leaver ( 1986 ) ( cited in Oxford, 2002 ) claim that left-hemisphere-dominant people — those whose dominant encephalon hemisphere is the left — are more field-independent, analytic, and logical-oriented.
Some research workers such as Spring & A ; Deutsch ( 1989 ) and Elias ( 1992 ) ( cited in
Oxford, 2002 ) happen several beginnings of gender differences in encephalon laterality:
aˆ? In work forces, the left hemisphere might be more lateralized ( specialized ) for
verbal activity and the right hemisphere may be more lateralized for abstract or spacial processing.
aˆ? Women might utilize both the left and the right hemispheres for both verbal and spacial activity, therefore demoing more incorporate encephalon operation and less hemispheric distinction.
aˆ? In adult females as compared to work forces, portion of the principal callosum ( the package of encephalon fibres associating the left and right hemispheres ) is bigger in relation to overall encephalon weight, leting more information to be exchanged between the two hemispheres.
Based on such research findings, Oxford ( 2002 ) postulates that males might
normally process linguistic communication larning information more readily through the left-hemispheric, analytic manner, but females might more frequently process linguistic communication acquisition informations through an integrating of left-and right-hemispheric manners. However, other research workers ( e.g. , Fausto-Sterling, 1985, cited in Oxford, 2002 ) oppose the thought that encephalon hemispheres are more incorporate in females than in males or that encephalon hemispheric differences can do a important difference. The prevalent sentiment seems to be that there are so gender differences in encephalon hemisphericity that deserve consideration and farther geographic expedition. And our apprehension of linguistic communication learning manner — for both ESL and foreign linguistic communications — would profit if these differences were explored. ( Oxford, 2002 )
2.2.2 Gender Differences in Socialization
Harmonizing to Tan ( 1995 ) , the difference between males and females is a consequence of both nature and raising. The account of gender differences that ignore sociological factors is uncomplete.
Oxford ( 2002 ) claims that socialisation which is the manner we bring up our immature
and incorporate them into society through a huge web of societal functions might besides be a great influence on gender differences in linguistic communication acquisition manners. Through gender socialisation, different behaviours and attitudes are encouraged and discouraged in work forces and adult females. Parents respond otherwise to boy babes and girl babes from the first hr of life, and after that teach their kids “ sex-appropriate ” behaviours ( Bern,
1974, cited in Oxford, 2002 ) . Socialization procedure takes topographic point non merely within household, but besides within school. School exercises much influence on the creative activity of gendered attitudes and behaviours. In school, instructors support the old socialisation forms, paying more attending to aggressive, riotous male childs than to girls with indistinguishable behaviour, and reacting to passive and dependent misss — although instructors prefer the behaviour of misss ( Serbin & A ; O’Leary, 1975, cited in Oxford, 2002 ) . In school, course of study stuffs, instructors outlooks, educational trailing, and equal dealingss encourage misss and male childs to larn gender-related accomplishments and self-concepts.
2.3 Relationship between Learning Styles and Foreign Language Learning
Ellis ( 1994 ) points out that all scholars analyze input and shop information about
the L2 in much the same manner. However, he besides admits that it is true that scholars vary tremendously in both the manner they set about tilting an L2 and besides in what they really win in larning. Therefore, he regards the survey of single scholar differences ( IDs ) as an of import country of work in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition ( SLA ) research. He ( 1994:473 ) sets up a basic model for look intoing single scholar differences to steer the scrutinies of IDs.
2.3.1 Framework for Investigating Individual Learner Differences
In his model for look intoing single scholar differences, Ellis ( 1994:
473 ) identifies three sets of interrelating variables ( see Figure 2.1 ) . The first set consists of IDs, which are of three chief types: beliefs about linguistic communication acquisition, affectional provinces and general factors. General factors include age, linguistic communication aptitude, larning manner, motive and personality. The 2nd set of variables consists of the different schemes that a scholar employs to larn and utilize the L2. The scholar schemes encompass larning schemes and usage schemes. The 3rd set concerns linguistic communication larning results which can be considered in footings of overall L2 proficiency, accomplishment with respect to L2 public presentation on a peculiar undertaking, and rate of acquisition. The interior portion of the trigon is larning procedures and mechanisms, so
positioned for they are mostly concealed.
These three sets of variables are interrelated. ID research until now has concentrated on look intoing the effects of different ID variables on scholar proficiency, accomplishment, or rate of advancement, measured in footings of public presentation on some sort of linguistic communication trial ( Ellis, 1994 ) . “ The general factors constitute major countries of influences on acquisition and can be ranged along a continuum harmonizing to how changeable they are ” ( Ellis, 1994: 472 ) . Harmonizing to Liu Runqing ( 1995 ) and Ellis ( 1994 ) the chief general factors that have received the most attending in SLA research are age, linguistic communication aptitude, larning manner, motive and personality. Learners ‘ beliefs and affectional provinces are likely to hold a direct consequence on L2 acquisition, but they themselves may be influenced by a figure of general factors associating to scholars ‘ ability and desire to larn and the manner they choose to travel about acquisition ( Ellis, 1994 ) .
Individual scholar differences
-beliefs about linguistic communication acquisition
-affective provinces -general factors
Learning procedures N
( 2 ) ( 3 )
Learner schemes, Language larning results
-on rate of acquisition
Figure 2.1: A model for look intoing single scholar differences
2.3.2 The Role of Learning Styles in Foreign Language Learning
Reid ( 1995 ) provides some basicss of larning manners. She claims that
larning manners in the ESL/EFL schoolrooms is based on six hypotheses: ( 1 ) Every individual, pupils and instructors likewise, has a learning manner and larning strengths and failings ; ( 2 ) Learning manners are frequently described as opposite, but really they exist on broad continuum ; ( 3 ) Learning manners are value-neutral ; that is, no 1 manner is better than others ( but it is true that there are pupils with some acquisition manners work better than those with some other learning manners ) ; ( 4 ) Students must be encouraged to “ stretch ” their acquisition manners so that they will be more sceptered in a assortment of larning state of affairss ; ( 5 ) Students ‘ schemes are frequently linked to their acquisition manners ; ( 6 ) Teachers should let their pupils to go cognizant of their learning strengths and failings.
McCarthy ( 1980 ) claims that the acquisition styles theory impacts instruction in the
following three facets: direction, course of study and appraisal.
( 1 ) Direction — Teachers should plan their direction methods to link with
pupils ‘ acquisition manners, utilizing assorted combinations of experience, contemplation, conceptualisation, and experimentation. Teachers can present a broad assortment of experiential elements into the schoolroom, such as sound, music, visuals, motion, experience, and even speaking.
( 2 ) Curriculum — Educators must put accent on intuition, feeling, detection, and imaginativeness, in add-on to the traditional accomplishments of analysis, ground, and consecutive job resolution.
( 3 ) Appraisal — Teachers should use a assortment of appraisal techniques, concentrating on the development of “ whole encephalon ” capacity and each of the different acquisition manners.
Ellis ( 1994 ) concludes that scholars clearly differ tremendously in their preferable attack to L2 acquisition, but it is impossible to state which larning manner works best. And rather perchance it is scholars who display flexibleness who are most successful, but there is no existent grounds yet for such a decision.
2.4 Previous Researchs on Learning Styles and Foreign Language Learning Abroad and Home
2.4.1 Previous Researches Done in the West
When larning manners were ab initio introduced, the differentiation between field independency ( FI ) and field dependance ( FD ) has attracted the most attending in SLA research ( Ellis, 1994 ) .
The consequences of many surveies show that people tend to be dominant in one manner of
Fl/FD or the other. Harmonizing to Ellis ( 1989 ) , both FI/FD scholars can derive linguistic communication success in SLA and the embedded-figures trials have small or no relationships with the linguistic communication accomplishment. Brown ( 2002 ) provides an account that FI may be of import to both schoolroom acquisition and public presentation on paper-and-pencil trials and he believes that FI/FD is considered to be contextualized and variable within one individual. In other words, the use of FI or FD of single scholars depends on the context of larning. Nevertheless, no grounds has been found to turn out such consideration.
Meanwhile, many research workers study single ‘ learning manner penchants from other dimensions. The followers are some of the most representative 1s.
Dunn ( 1975, cited in Tan Dingliang, 1995: 19-20 ) develops the Learning Style Inventory. The learning manner elements identified in the SLI are: 1 ) Environmental stimulation which includes the single scholar ‘s penchant toward a quiet or noisy environment, a formal or insouciant seating design, and the penchant of visible radiation and temperature. 2 ) Emotional stimulation. This sphere chiefly concerns whether single scholar possesses a high grade of motive, continuity and duty every bit good as whether he prefers extremely structured acquisition stuffs. 3 ) Sociological stimulation. This class contains factors such as whether single scholar prefers to analyze as a member of a squad and whether he depends on authorization to corroborate his judgement and whether he likes to analyze in modus operandis. 4 ) Physiological stimulation. This kind contains the perceptual penchants of single scholar, i.e. , his inclination to auditory, ocular, haptic or kinaesthetic forms and his mobility while larning and his inclination to the clip of larning such as forenoon and afternoon. Harmonizing to Kinsella ( 1994, cited in Reid, 2002 ) , Dunn and Dunn add the psychological stimulation in 1979. This class contains the single scholar ‘s penchant toward right or left hemisphere larning manner which includes factors such as analytical/global, reflective/impulsive acquisition manners, etc. The Dunn ‘s theoretical account is really of import for it stand foring the complexness of variables which potentially influence pupils ‘ distinguishable attacks to larning comprehensively. Many research workers developed their surveies based on Dunn ‘s theoretical account.
Reid ( 1987 ) classifies scholars into six different types in conformity of their manner
differences, viz. , ocular, audile, kinaesthetic, haptic, group and single types. Based on her ain theory, Reid conducts a survey in 1987 to look into the preferable acquisition manners of pupils with different linguistic communication backgrounds. The research reports that scholars ‘ penchants frequently differ significantly from those of native talkers of US. They show a general penchant for kinaesthetic and haptic acquisition manners ( with the exclusion of the Japanese ) , and they view group larning manner as a negative 1. Proficiency degree is irrelevant to larning manner penchants. However, no affair which background a scholar comes from, the thirster he stays in the US, the more his acquisition
manners resemble the native talkers.
Melton ( 1990 ) uses Reid ‘s Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire to analyze the six acquisition manners of 331 Chinese EFL pupils runing from university to middle school. The research findings are: Chinese EFL pupils show multiple penchants for larning manners, and their most preferable manner is haptic larning manner and the least one is group larning manner.
Still based on Reid ‘s Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire,
Stebbins ( 2002 ) expands the Reid ‘s work in an attempt to show a relationship between cultural backgrounds and perceptual acquisition manners through longitudinal stableness. The consequences of his survey parallel Reid ‘s consequences in several countries: kinaesthetic and haptic acquisition manners are strongly preferred by ESL pupils when compared to native English talkers ; group acquisition is once more chose as the least preferable manner by most native English talkers and ESL pupils ; the lone sample group in the survey demoing a penchant for the group larning manners were those ESL pupils with low ( 300-349 ) TOEFL scores. Spanish talkers repeat their strong penchant for the kinaesthetic manners. Arabic and Korean pupils show stableness in their pick of multiple acquisition manners.
A figure of surveies have highlighted the consequence of civilization on the acquisition manners
of ESL/EFL pupils. Liu and Littlewood ( 1997 ) find that “ listening to the instructor ” is the most frequent activity in Chinese senior school English categories. They claim that traditional EFL instruction in most Asiatic states is dominated by teacher-centered, book-centered, grammar-translation method and an accent on rote memory, which have resulted in a figure of typical acquisition manners, with introspective larning being one of them. Sue and Kirk ( 1972 ) find that most Asiatic pupils are less independent, more dependent on authorization figures and more obedient and conforming to regulations and deadlines, which lead to closure-oriented learning manner for them. Nelson ( 2002 ) introduces the differences between middle-class U.S. public school educational techniques ( which are FI, analytical, and ocular ) and native Hawaiian and native American acquisition manners ( which are FD, planetary, and kinaesthetic ) . Her research consequences demonstrate that civilization such as a scholar ‘s background cognition, anterior educational
experiences, cultural traditions, and socialisation can act upon the manner pupils learn.
Some research workers investigate the impact of gender differences on linguistic communication acquisition manners. Lawrance ( 1982 ) and Jones ( 1986 ) ( cited in Yu Xinle, 1997 ) find that there is a important difference between male and female pupils ‘ larning manner penchants. Oxford ( 2002 ) discusses gender differences in centripetal penchant, FI/FD, reflection/impulsivity, objective/impersonal manners and subjective/empathic manners severally. She ( 2002 ) studies that compared with adult females, work forces are slightly more field-independent, analytic, nonsubjective, and logically minded in processing linguistic communication and in other countries of life, while adult females have been found to be given toward being more field-sensitive, globally patterned, subjective, and capable of utilizing emotions. However, gender differences in acquisition manners still need to be studied consistently.
There are still many researches refering the acquisition manner in foreign linguistic communication larning sphere, which can non be presented thoroughly in this thesis.
2.4.2 Previous Studies Conducted in China
In comparing with the probe into larning manners abroad, domestic survey is much later. In the past decennaries, the survey of larning manners has been regarded capable to the survey of cognitive manners. And the sphere of larning manners is comparatively less explored in China compared with the other single variables. Until now, most of the surveies on acquisition manners are restricted to the theoretical treatment, largely with the accent on its significance in casting visible radiation on the foreign linguistic communication instruction and debut of the dimension of this concept ( Tan Dingliang, 1995 ; Ye Jianping, 1999 ; Li Guangchao, 2000 ; Su Fengchao & A ; Lu Junmei, 2000 ; etc ) .
There are still some empirical researches refering larning manners of Chinese
pupils in China. Modifying Reid ‘s stock list, professor Wang Churning ( 1992 ) investigates 490 English big leagues runing from freshers to seniors in English Department of Guangdong Foreign Language Studies. He finds that the mean mark in larning manner questionnaire is higher than that in Reid ‘s probe ; Chinese EFL pupils show multiple penchants for larning manners. And the most preferable manner is
– 23 –
Chapter 5 Conclusions Implications and Restrictions
The findings discussed in the old chapters are reviewed and concluded in this chapter, and so pedagogical deductions are explored and suggested. Based on the findings of the present research, recommendations for farther research are besides made in this chapter.
The purposes of current research were to look into the vocational school non-English big leagues ‘ general acquisition manner penchants, the penchant differences between male and female pupils and the relationship between larning manners and their foreign linguistic communication accomplishment. The writer of the survey used Oxford ‘s SAS to analyze learning manner penchants of 102 non-English sophomores who major in computing machine, civil technology and mechanization in Shi Jiazhuang Railway Vocational and Technique College of Hebei Province. Independent-Sample T Test was used to analyze the acquisition manner penchants of different genders. And the Pearson correlativity survey between pupils ‘ acquisition manners and their foreign linguistic communication accomplishment was based on pupils ‘ tonss in CET-4 trial. Harmonizing to the analysis of the quantitative information in this research, the undermentioned decisions could be drawn to supply basic replies to the research inquiries stated in chapter one.
First, there are a great assortment of larning manners administering among the Chinese
vocational school non-English big leagues. Their favourite one in centripetal acquisition manners is ocular manner ; from personality larning manners dimension, they prefer introspective manner to extroverted manner, and the extrospective manner is the least preferred one among the 11 acquisition manners ; from cognitive acquisition manners dimension, they prefer intuitive-random, closure-oriented, and planetary manners.
Second, there are important links between gender and learning manner penchants. The research shows that male non-English big leagues of vocational school prefer hands-on manner than their female opposite numbers, whereas female pupils like
closure-oriented manner better.
Third, in the probe on correlativity between larning manners and foreign linguistic communication accomplishment, no important relationship is found.
5.2 Pedagogical Deductions of This Survey
This survey shows that non-English big leagues of vocational school have a assortment of larning manner penchants. Reid ( 1987 ) suggests that pupils who prefer more learning manners are more successful scholars because they have more channels to obtain cognition. If instructors are cognizant of this characteristic and seek to follow assorted learning manners to fit them, most pupils can larn by utilizing their suited manners and go more successful linguistic communication scholars. From the above survey, we can acquire the undermentioned deductions.
First, instructors should seek to place and run into pupils ‘ larning manner penchants.
Sims and Sims ( 1995 ) suggest that placing pupils ‘ acquisition manner and
supplying appropriate direction contribute to more effectual acquisition. Since current survey shows that ocular manner is the most favourite manner of non-English big leagues of vocational school in centripetal acquisition manners dimension, instructors should supply more ocular input and give pupils information in written signifiers such as press releases and worksheets. Kirby ( 1979, cited in Eliason, 2002: 29 ) finds that pupils with greater learning-style flexibleness are greater winners. Although ocular manner is the favourite one, some scholars may larn best if there is a combination of ocular, hands-on and audile. Therefore to run into pupils ‘ larning manner penchant, instructors may form the lesson with different larning undertakings which can reenforce different pupils ‘ larning manner penchant.
From personality larning manners dimension, the survey shows that vocational
school non-English big leagues prefer introspective manner to extroverted one. However, with the popularisation of communicative attack and task-based instruction method, introspective manner is considered non good for pupils ‘ foreign linguistic communication acquisition. Therefore, instructors should assist pupils organize extroverted learning manner. Teachers may form
group-oriented and collaborative acquisition activities. In add-on, it ‘s better to make some in-class activities such as treatments, arguments, role-plays, and games.
From cognitive acquisition manners dimension, the present research shows that non-English big leagues of vocational school prefer intuitive-random, closure-oriented, and planetary manners. Intuitive-random pupils like to make theories and new possibilities, frequently have sudden penetrations, and like to steer their ain acquisition. However, there are besides some pupils with concrete-sequential manner. Thus the key to run into pupils ‘ penchants is to offer assortment and picks: sometimes a extremely organized construction for concrete-sequential pupils and other times multiple options and enrichment activities fir intuitive-random pupils. Closure-oriented pupils are serious and hardworking ; and they like to be given written information and enjoy specific undertakings with deadlines. Such sort of pupils is influenced by the traditional instruction manner. However, as the communicative instruction attack is going more and more popular, this sort of pupils may lose their ways in communicative schoolroom scene. Therefore, instructors should consciously make concerted groups which besides include pupils with unfastened manner who take English acquisition less earnestly and dislike deadlines. These two types of pupils can profit from coaction with each other. Global pupils like acquiring the chief thought and avoid analysis of grammatical precise inside informations. As mentioned above, instructors should besides make chances for planetary pupils and analytic pupils to collaborate with each other. Global pupils emphasize generalization while analytic pupils concern for specificity. They can larn from each other.
Second, both pupils and instructors should accept gender-related differences and usage manner consequences in larning direction.
Since current research shows that gender differences do be in non-English
big leagues ‘ larning manner penchants, linguistic communication instructors and pupils should accept gender-related differences that appear in the manner appraisals. Oxford ( 2002 ) suggests that all participants should experience free to discourse these differences openly, conveying up any sociocultural ( and possibly biological ) influences that might hold helped make any contrasts between males and females. Teachers can change their
instructional techniques to run into the demands of pupils with contrasting manners of larning. An of import suggestion is to supply a broad scope of activities instructors might besides seek utilizing an imposed “ wait clip ” that requires or encourages unprompted or ascendant pupils ( frequently males ) to reflect before reacting ; giving brooding pupils ( frequently females ) tonss of chance to believe and inquire inquiries before reacting ( Oxford, 2002 ) .
Teachers may use manner consequences in fixing a linguistic communication larning environment that accommodates males and females likewise. The learning environment can set up the category as inclusive, welcoming everyone.
Third, instructors should fit their instruction manners to pupils ‘ acquisition manners. The current survey does non happen any important relationship between vocational
school non-English big leagues ‘ acquisition manners and their English accomplishment. However, some old researches have found that different manners contribute otherwise to English accomplishment. Therefore, pupils should larn to utilize the manners that may ease and advance successful acquisition, and avoid utilizing of the manners that have negative influences on peculiar larning undertaking ; instructors should alter their ain manners and schemes, and supply a assortment of larning experiences to run into the demands of different acquisition manners. Teachers ‘ designation of their ain manner penchants may ease pupil larning by more closely duplicate pupil penchants with instructor pattern ( Stebbins, 2002 ) . Then all pupils will hold at least some activities that appeal to them based on their ain acquisition manners, and they are more likely to be successful in these activities. Hence, it is of import for those English instructors to set their ain instruction manner to suit the manners that are preferred by most pupils.
Teachers should assist pupils expose to alternate manners and promote them to
place the virtues and defects of their manners. Students whose penchants are different from the instructors ‘ can be at a disadvantage both in undertaking orientation and in interaction with the instructor ( Stebbins, 2002 ) . Therefore, instructors should non merely fit learning manners with pupils ‘ acquisition manners, but besides help pupils to stretch their acquisition manners.
However, it is really hard to fit direction to every scholar ‘s demand. What
the instructor should make is to do their instruction manners flexible to maximise chances for all the pupils with different larning manner penchants. The flexibleness of manner matching can be increased by multimedia direction. By utilizing multimedia, lessons may be presented both visually and verbally and reinforced through assorted motivative linguistic communication activities. In this manner, pupils can larn in ways that best suit their manners and develop their mode strengths. Harmonizing to Kang Shumin ( 1999 ) , the appropriate usage of multimedia, like picture recording, slide presentation, overhead projection, together with selective hands-on activities, has made lessons interesting and actuating to pupils.
5.3 Restrictions and Suggestions for Future Surveies
As shown antecedently, the present probe has yielded fruitful findings.
However, failings and restrictions are ineluctable.
The first restriction lies in the questionnaire. Merely Oxford ‘s SAS study was used
in this survey and the points of the questionnaire can non cover all the learning manner cognition and learning manner classs. Furthermore, in this survey, the writer used a Chinese version of Oxford ‘s questionnaire, which might hold caused some misunderstanding ensuing from the cross-language interlingual rendition. Future surveies on larning manners can be conducted both quantitatively and qualitatively. Other instruments like diary, diaries and interviews can function as the complementary tools to look into pupils ‘ acquisition manners.
Second, the topics in this survey are the college sophomores, who confined the
findings to a inactive degree ; whether there are some dynamic alterations during the whole
phases of their college acquisition is unknown. Longitudinal probe is necessary to
figure out the possible acquisition manners alterations.
Third, the topics are from one vocational school, therefore generalization of the consequences
may be rather limited. Future research is needed to more to the full research the acquisition
manners in a assortment of educational contexts.